Orthopaedics

Matthew Oetgen, M.D., discusses an image of a patient’s spine.

Eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure from spinal radiography

Matthew Oetgen, M.D., discusses an image of a patient’s spine.

Chief of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Matthew Oetgen, M.D., discusses an image of a patient’s spine.

If a child arrives at the pediatric orthopaedic specialist for an idiopathic scoliosis evaluation without an adequate radiographic image of his or her spine, it’s often necessary to order yet another imaging study for accurate assessment.

A study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons found that in a 6 month period, almost half (43 percent) of patients referred for evaluation required a repeat radiograph due to missing or poor quality existing images.

“Repeating the radiograph means these kids received another exposure to radiation, too,” says Matthew Oetgen, M.D., the study’s lead author and chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine at Children’s National Health System. “It’s frustrating because in many cases, a simple change in how the initial radiograph was taken could have prevented the need for more imaging studies.”

Dr. Oetgen and the study authors note that there is currently no standardized protocol for spinal radiography of suspected idiopathic scoliosis. However, a few basic criteria could greatly reduce the number of repeat images necessary. Radiographic images that allow for proper evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis and reduce radiation exposure include:

  • A full coronal view of the spine including skull base and pelvis
  • The iliac crest as an indicator of skeletal maturity
  • A full-length lateral view of the spine

Study authors also reinforced the need to do everything possible to reduce radiation exposure for children through proper use of protective shielding for reproductive organs and digital radiograph technology.

“Orthopaedic surgeons and pediatricians share the responsibility to ensure children are exposed to as little iatrogenic radiation as possible,” Dr. Oetgen concludes. “All physicians should be sure that the radiology facilities they refer patients to for spinal radiography employ every technology and safety measure available to limit radiation exposure. Additionally, we can and should work with radiologists to define evaluation criteria and improve what’s captured by radiography on the first try.”

Dr. Benjamin Martin examines a patient

Understanding Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

Dr. Benjamin Martin examines a patient

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, which affects between five and 10 of every 100,000 children each year, is so rare that it can sometimes be challenging for clinicians to know how best to care for affected patients.

That’s why in 2011 a group of pediatric orthopaedic specialists led by Texas Scottish Rite Children’s Hospital created an international study group dedicated to using research to improve the care of kids with Perthes, a hip disorder characterized by a loss of blood flow to the immature femoral head. Children’s National orthopaedic surgeon Benjamin Martin, M.D., has participated in the group since its launch.

Recently, Dr. Martin and two study group colleagues published a review study that outlines common imaging modalities used in the diagnosis and treatment of Perthes disease.

“There are many imaging options out there, including recent advances in MRI, that can add to our knowledge of the disease and how to treat it so kids have optimal outcomes,” Dr. Martin says. “Our goal was to review what’s out there, how it’s used, and identify any shortcomings of these approaches for this particular patient population.”

The authors note that imaging, in various forms, has been a crucial contributor to understanding and treatment of this disease since it was first discovered. Today, radiography remains the most common imaging technique used to diagnose and follow Perthes over time. However, some MRI applications may offer additional insight into the disorder.

Perfusion MRI allows for early understanding of extent of disease and perfusion patterns may correlate with outcomes. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) MRI is another promising avenue for tracking disease progression. Additionally, dynamic MRI might provide range of motion assessments that could be used in the surgical planning process.

This study was one of a handful that the international Perthes group has published so far, with several more currently under development. Exploring treatments and technology applications will enhance early diagnosis and treatment for Perthes, which is a crucial component of treatment success and improved quality of life for affected children.

young girl sitting on a bed with a cast

Creating better casts

young girl sitting on a bed with a cast

Each year, millions of children in the U.S. come to hospital emergency departments with fractures. While broken bones are commonplace, the expertise to stabilize these injuries and cast them is not, says Children’s National Health System orthopedic surgeon Shannon Kelly, M.D.

Most fractures are casted by an on-call resident without the assistance of an orthopedist, she explains. Whether that resident applies a cast successfully depends largely on how well he or she learned this skill as an intern. While most current training models have interns take calls with residents, picking up casting skills through hands-on experience from their more senior peers, they can also pick up mistakes – which get repeated once they’re caring for patients independently as residents themselves, Kelly says.

Casting mistakes aren’t trivial, she adds. They can have serious consequences for patients. For example, a cast that’s not tight enough in the right places can leave bones vulnerable to shifting, a scenario that doctors call a loss in reduction, Kelly explains. If bones aren’t in the right position to heal, doctors must reposition them either in the operating room, often exposing patients to general anesthesia, or through painful, in-office procedures.

Conversely, casts that are too tight – particularly on a fresh fracture that’s prone to swelling – can damage tissues from loss of circulation. To avoid this latter problem, doctors often create a “bivalve” cast in which the two halves are split like a clamshell, leaving room for tissues to expand. But they must use extreme care when they cut open the cast with a saw to avoid cutting patients with the rotating blade or burning them with heat generated from its friction.

“Each year, thousands of children are harmed from improper casting and must go through additional procedures to fix the damage done,” Kelly says.

That’s why she and her colleagues are developing a better way to train interns before they start their orthopedics rotation. Starting this spring, the team will be directing a series of casting workshops to train interns on the proper casting technique.

The workshops will take advantage of models that allow interns to practice without harming patients. Some of these models have simulated bones that show up on an X-ray, allowing participants to evaluate whether they achieved a good reduction once they’re finished. Other models are made of wax that melts if the heat of a cast saw becomes too intense and show nicks if the blade makes contact. Learning proper technique using this tool can help spare human patients painful burns and cuts, Kelly says.

To broaden this effort beyond Children’s National, Kelly and her colleagues received a $1,000 microgrant from the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America to create videos based on material from these workshops. These videos will help trainees at medical institutions across the country learn the same pivotal casting skills.

“A broken bone is difficult enough,” Kelly says. “We’re hoping to decrease the number of times that a child has to have an unnecessary procedure on top of that from a casting mistake that could have been avoided.”

Pedbot video game

Pedbot’s next step – Home-based therapy

Pedbot video game

Pedbot’s home version adapts the same airplane-themed video game to a smaller therapeutic platform that is more affordable to build.

The novel ankle rehabilitation robot built at Children’s National to help children with cerebral palsy build ankle strength and control through video gaming is taking a big step forward. Engineers have created a smaller, more affordable version of the robotic platform using 3D printed parts, to explore the effectiveness of a home-based therapy program.

“We’re seeing preliminary success in our trial for in clinic use of the Pedbot. Now we’re hoping to see if making the technology accessible at home means that 1) Kids use it more often and 2) More frequent, regular use over time leads to better range of motion,” says Kevin Cleary, Ph.D., the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation’s bioengineering technical director and engineering lead for Pedbot.

Pedbot’s video game, designed by software engineer Hadi Fooladi, M.S., allows kids to pilot an airplane through a series of hoops at varying speeds as determined by the therapist and programmer. The game isn’t the only thing that’s unique about this therapeutic robot, however.

Just like the clinic version, the home model moves in three translational directions (x, y and z) and rotates about three axes (the x, y and z axes), similar to the movement of a flight simulator. The result is a robot that helps the patient exercise across a greater range of motion and build muscle strength in a way that more closely mimics real-life ankle function.

Pedbot Home potentially eliminates an additional major therapeutic barrier – the clinic appointment.

“The great thing about Pedbot is you’re constantly working to reach a moving target, and the therapist can vary the movement type as much or as little as needed for each patient,” says Catherine Coley, DPT, a physical therapist at Children’s National who is a member of the Pedbot development team. “We think the home version might make it easier for the child to succeed with a long term therapy program by removing the need for repeat clinic visits.”

“What if a child could come home from school and do their therapy at home after dinner? Would doing it every day for 20 minutes benefit the child more than just coming to see us once or twice a week for an hour? Can we make it easier for our patients to cooperate and follow through with therapy homework? These are some of the questions that we hope we can answer during our trial for the home version,” says Sally Evans, M.D., division chief of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine at Children’s National and clinical lead for the project.

The cross-functional Pedbot team includes engineers Reza Monfaredi Ph.D. and Tyler Salvador, B.S., as well as additional physical therapists, Stacey Kovelman, P.T. and Justine Belchner, P.T., and Sara Alyamani, B.A. Future expansions will include the addition of electromyography measurements in collaboration with Paola Pergami, M.D., Ph.D. and incorporation of other patient populations with Beth Wells, M.D.

Pedbot Home is currently being piloted in the home setting, with the goal of enrolling additional families to participate in a trial within the next year. The work is supported by a $500,000 federal grant from the Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.

Megan Young

Orthopaedic Surgeon named 2019 LLRS Traveling Fellow

Megan Young

Megan Young, M.D.

Megan Young, M.D., has been named a 2019 Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (LLRS) Traveling Fellow.

The fellowship provides leading education in limb lengthening and reconstruction, trains future leaders of LLRS and establishes mentor relationships between current society members and new surgeons.

“We are beyond proud that Dr. Young was selected for this highly competitive opportunity,” says Matthew Oetgen, M.D., chief of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. “This is only the latest recognition Dr. Young has received for her growing expertise in limb lengthening and complex lower extremity reconstructions.”

During her fellowship in August 2019, Dr. Young will travel to multiple limb lengthening and reconstruction surgical centers to share ideas and exchange best practices with orthopaedic surgeons at every career stage – from trainees to seasoned veterans. She will present her key takeaways from the experience at the society’s 2020 annual meeting.

Dr. Young has a special interest in caring for children with lower extremity deformity and limb length discrepancies and has developed a Limb Lengthening program at Children’s, which offers patients and their families comprehensive treatment options for these complex conditions using leading edge technology.

E coli bacteria

Urinary bacteria in spinal cord injury cases may tip balance toward UTIs

E coli bacteria

Patients with spinal cord injuries nearly universally have bacteria present in their urine regardless of whether they have a urinary tract infection.

The fallout from spinal cord injury doesn’t end with loss of mobility: Patients can have a range of other issues resulting from this complex problem, including loss of bladder control that can lead to urine retention. One of the most serious implications is urinary tract infections (UTIs), the most common cause of repeat hospitalization in people with spinal cord injuries, explains Hans G. Pohl, M.D., associate chief in the division of Urology at Children’s National Health System.

Diagnosing UTIs in people with spinal cord injuries is trickier than in people who are otherwise healthy, Dr. Pohl explains. Patients with spinal cord injuries nearly universally have bacteria present in their urine regardless of whether they have a UTI. It’s unclear whether these bacteria are innocent bystanders or precursors to UTIs in patients who don’t yet show symptoms. And although antibiotics can wipe out this bacterial population, these drugs can have undesirable side effects and frequent use can promote development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Although clinical dogma has long promoted the idea that “healthy” urine is sterile, Dr. Pohl and colleagues have shown that a variety of bacteria live in urine, even in people without symptoms. These microorganisms, like the intestinal microbiome, live in harmony with their hosts and may even help promote health. However, it’s unclear what this urinary microbiome might look like for patients with spinal cord injury before, during and after UTIs.

To start investigating this question, Dr. Pohl and co-authors recently reported a case study they published online Sept. 21, 2018, in Spinal Cord Series and Cases. The case report about a 55-year-old man who had injured the thoracic segment of his spinal cord—about the level of the bottom of his shoulder blades—in a skiing accident when he was 19 was selected as “Editor’s Choice” for the journal’s October 2018 issue.  The patient had a neurogenic bladder, which doesn’t function normally due to impaired communication with the spinal cord. To compensate for this loss of function, this patient needed to have urine removed every four to six hours by catheterization.

Over eight months Dr. Pohl, the study’s senior author, and colleagues collected 12 urine samples from this patient:

  • One was collected at a time the patient didn’t show any symptoms of a UTI
  • Nine were collected when the patient had UTI symptoms, such as bladder spasticity
  • Two samples were collected when the patient had finished antibiotic treatment for the UTI.

The researchers split each sample in half. One part was put through a standard urinalysis and culture, much like what patients with a suspected UTI would receive at the doctor’s office. The other part was analyzed using a technique that searched for genetic material to identify bacteria that might be present and to estimate their abundance.

The researchers found a variety of different bacteria present in these urine samples. Regardless of the patient’s health status and symptoms, the majority of these bacterial species are known to be pathogenic or potentially pathogenic. By contrast, this patient’s urine microbiome appeared to largely lack bacterial species known to be either neutral or with potentially probiotic properties, such as Lactobacillus.

All of the bacteria that grew in culture also were identified by their genetic material in the samples. However, genetic sequencing also identified a possible novel uropathogenic species called Burkholderia fungorum that didn’t grow in the lab in five of the samples. This bacterium is ubiquitous in the environment and has been identified in soil- and plant-based samples. It also has been discovered in the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis, in patients with a heart condition called infectious endocarditis, in the vaginal microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis, and in the gut of patients with HIV who have low T-cell counts. Dr. Pohl says it’s unclear whether this species played an infectious role in this patient’s UTI or whether it’s just part of his normal urine flora.

“Consistent with our previous work, this case report demonstrates that rather than healthy urine being sterile, there is a diverse urine bacterial ecosystem during various states of health and disease,” Dr. Pohl says. “Rather than UTIs resulting from the growth or overgrowth of a single organism, it’s more likely that a change in the healthy balance of the urine ecosystem might cause these infections.”

By monitoring the relative abundance of different bacteria types present in the urine of patients with spinal cord injury and combining this information with a patient’s symptoms, Dr. Pohl says doctors may be able to make more accurate UTI diagnoses in this unique population.

In addition to Dr. Pohl, study co-authors include Marcos Pérez-Losada, Ljubica Caldovic, Ph.D., Bruce Sprague and Michael H. Hsieh, M.D., Children’s National; Emma Nally, Suzanne L. Groah and Inger Ljungberg, MedStar National Rehabilitation Hospital; and Neel J. Chandel, Montefiore Medical Center.

AlgometRX

Breakthrough device objectively measures pain type, intensity and drug effects

AlgometRX

Clinical Research Assistant Kevin Jackson uses AlgometRx Platform Technology on Sarah Taylor’s eyes to measure her degree of pain. Children’s National Medical Center is testing an experimental device that aims to measure pain according to how pupils react to certain stimuli. (AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta)

Pediatric anesthesiologist Julia C. Finkel, M.D., of Children’s National Health System, gazed into the eyes of a newborn patient determined to find a better way to measure the effectiveness of pain treatment on one so tiny and unable to verbalize. Then she realized the answer was staring back at her.

Armed with the knowledge that pain and analgesic drugs produce an involuntary response from the pupil, Dr. Finkel developed AlgometRx, a first-of-its-kind handheld device that measures a patient’s pupillary response and, using proprietary algorithms, provides a diagnostic measurement of pain intensity, pain type and, after treatment is administered, monitors efficacy. Her initial goal was to improve the care of premature infants. She now has a device that can be used with children of any age and adults.

“Pain is very complex and it is currently the only vital sign that is not objectively measured,” says Dr. Finkel, who has more than 25 years of experience as a pain specialist. “The systematic problem we are facing today is that healthcare providers prescribe pain medicine based on subjective self-reporting, which can often be inaccurate, rather than based on an objective measure of pain type and intensity.” To illustrate her point, Dr. Finkel continues, “A clinician would never prescribe blood pressure medicine without first taking a patient’s blood pressure.”

The current standard of care for measuring pain is the 0-to-10 pain scale, which is based on subjective, observational and self-reporting techniques. Patients indicate their level of pain, with zero being no pain and ten being highest or most severe pain. This subjective system increases the likelihood of inaccuracy, with the problem being most acute with pediatric and non-verbal patients. Moreover, Dr. Finkel points out that subjective pain scores cannot be standardized, heightening the potential for misdiagnosis, over-treatment or under-treatment.

Dr. Finkel, who serves as director of Research and Development for Pain Medicine at the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children’s National, says that a key step in addressing the opioid crisis is providing physicians with objective, real-time data on a patient’s pain level and type, to safely prescribe the right drug and dosage or an alternate treatment.,

She notes that opioids are prescribed for patients who report high pain scores and are sometimes prescribed in cases where they are not appropriate. Dr. Finkel points to the example of sciatica, a neuropathic pain sensation felt in the lower back, legs and buttocks. Sciatica pain is carried by touch fibers that do not have opioid receptors, which makes opioids an inappropriate choice for treating that type of pain.

A pain biomarker could rapidly advance both clinical practice and pain research, Dr. Finkel adds. For clinicians, the power to identify the type and magnitude of a patient’s nociception (detection of pain stimuli) would provide a much-needed scientific foundation for approaching pain treatment. Nociception could be monitored through the course of treatment so that dosing is targeted and personalized to ensure patients receive adequate pain relief while reducing side effects.

“A validated measure to show whether or not an opioid is indicated for a given patient could ease the health care system’s transition from overreliance on opioids to a more comprehensive and less harmful approach to pain management,” says Dr. Finkel.

She also notes that objective pain measurement can provide much needed help in validating complementary approaches to pain management, such as acupuncture, physical therapy, virtual reality and other non-pharmacological interventions.

Dr. Finkel’s technology, called AlgometRx, has been selected by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to participate in its “Innovation Challenge: Devices to Prevent and Treat Opioid Use Disorder.” She is also the recipient of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Emily Niu

Osteochondritis dissecans: Deciding the best candidates for nonoperative treatment

Emily Niu

“When patients come to see me with this condition, they’re often at their lowest point. But then I get to watch them go through this transformation as they’re getting better,” says Emily Niu, M.D. “It’s really wonderful to see someone’s personality blossom over the course of treatments.”

The adage of “practice makes perfect” is true for young competitive athletes; however it also puts them at risk for overuse injuries. One of these injuries is a condition called osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), in which repeatedly overloading joints causes increased stress to certain areas of bone. This area of bone can lose its blood supply, become unhealthy and ultimately end up fragmented. In the late stages, this area of bone can break off from the surrounding healthy bone and as a result, the overlying cartilage (which relies on the bone for a foundation) can become prone to damage. This process can be likened to the formation of potholes in a road. Typically, individuals affected can have pain, limited range of motion or even arthritis down the line.

This condition can happen at different locations throughout the body, including the knees, ankles and elbows. Baseball players and gymnasts are particularly prone to getting OCD of the capitellum, or the outside of the elbow, from throwing or tumbling.

If this injury is unstable, with bone and cartilage already fragmenting, it’s typically treated with surgery, explains Emily Niu, M.D., a Children’s National orthopaedic surgeon. Stabilizing the fragment and drilling tunnels in the affected bone surface allows new bone to grow and repair the defect. But for stable OCD, the treatment path is unclear.

Sometimes nonoperative treatments, such as rest, physical therapy or bracing the joint, can allow it to fully heal over time; however, she says, some patients treated nonoperatively may not be able to heal and will still require surgery later.

What distinguishes these two groups has thus far been unclear. Dr. Niu adds that there are few studies that have looked at what characteristics might make patients better candidates for a surgical or nonoperative route. The studies that do exist are limited to very small groups of patients.

To help doctors and their patients make more informed decisions, Dr. Niu and her colleagues performed a retrospective review of 89 patients aged 18 years old and younger treated at Boston Children’s Hospital for stable OCD of the capitellum. The vast majority of these 49 male and 40 female patients were baseball players and gymnasts. Most had just a single elbow affected; four patients (all gymnasts) experienced this problem in both elbows.

Each of these patients was initially treated nonoperatively, with activity restriction, physical therapy and progressive return to activity at the discretion of the treating physician. During this time, all of the athletes had elbow radiographs, elbow MRIs or both to image the injury and follow its healing process.

The researchers report in the November 2018 that just over half of these 93 elbows healed successfully with nonoperative treatments, taking an average of about eight months for symptoms to subside and imaging to show that the bone had healed properly.

When Dr. Niu and her colleagues looked for characteristics that might have influenced whether nonoperative treatments worked or didn’t, they didn’t find any difference in the two groups with age, bone maturity, sex, hand dominance or sport. However, the healing group had symptoms for an average of four months shorter than the non-healing group before they sought treatment. Those patients with bone lesions without clear margins visible on MRI were more likely to heal than those with clear margins, as were those without cyst-like lesions on their bones – both signs of a more advanced process. In addition, those whose bone lesions were relatively small were more likely to heal than those with larger lesions compared to the size of their bones.

Dr. Niu notes that OCD can be a devastating injury for young athletes, interrupting their participation in sports on average for a minimum of six months and significantly longer if nonoperative treatments fail and surgery becomes necessary. Being able to shave some time off that schedule with better knowledge of which type of treatment is most likely to work, she says, can help her patients get back to doing what they love significantly faster.

“When patients come to see me with this condition, they’re often at their lowest point. But then I get to watch them go through this transformation as they’re getting better,” Dr. Niu says. “It’s really wonderful to see someone’s personality blossom over the course of treatments. It’s such a relief for both of us when they’re back where they want to be.”

Femoral fracture

Broken system? Pain relief for fractures differs by race/ethnicity

Femoral fracture

Data collected by a multi-institutional research team show that kids’ pain from long bone fractures may be managed differently in the emergency department depending on the child’s race and ethnicity.

Children who experience broken bones universally feel pain. However, a new multi-institutional study presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2018 National Conference & Exhibition suggests that emergency treatment for this pain among U.S. children is far from equal. Data collected by the research team show that kids’ pain may be managed differently in the emergency department depending on the child’s race and ethnicity. In particular, while non-Latino black children and Latino children are more likely to receive any analgesia, non-white children with fractured bones are less likely to receive opioid pain medications, even when they arrive at the emergency department with similar pain levels.

“We know from previously published research that pain may be treated differentially based on a patient’s race or ethnicity in the emergency department setting. Our prior work has demonstrated that racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to receive opioid analgesia to treat abdominal pain, even when these patients are diagnosed with appendicitis,” says study leader Monika K. Goyal, M.D., MSCE, assistant division chief and director of Academic Affairs and Research in the Division of Emergency Medicine at Children’s National Health System. “Emergency departments delivering evidence-based care should treat all pediatric patients consistently. These findings extend our work by demonstrating that children presenting with long bone fractures also experience differential treatment of pain based on their race or ethnicity.”

The AAP calls appropriately controlling children’s pain and stress “a vital component of emergency medical care” that can affect the child’s overall emergency medical experience. Because fractures of long bones – clavicle, humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibula – are commonly managed in the emergency department, the research team tested a hypothesis about disparities in bone fracture pain management.

They conducted a retrospective cohort study of children and adolescents 21 and younger who were diagnosed with a long bone fracture from July 1, 2014, through June 30, 2017. They analyzed deidentified electronic health records stored within the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Registry, which collects data from all patient encounters at seven pediatric emergency departments.

During that time, 21,642 patients with long bone fractures met the study inclusion criteria and experienced moderate to severe pain, rating four or higher on a 10-point pain scale. Some 85.1 percent received analgesia of any type; 41.5 percent received opioid analgesia. Of note:

  • When compared with non-Hispanic white children, minority children were more likely to receive pain medication of any kind (i.e. non-Latino black patients were 58 percent more likely to receive any pain medication, and Latino patients were 23 percent more likely to receive any pain medication).
  • When compared with non-Latino white children, minority children were less likely to receive opioid analgesia (i.e., non-Latino black patients were 30 percent less likely to receive opioid analgesia, and Latino patients were 28 percent less likely to receive opioid analgesia).

“Even though minority children with bone fractures were more likely to receive any type of pain medication, it is striking that minority children were less likely to receive opioid analgesia, compared with white non-Latino children,” Dr. Goyal says. “While it’s reassuring that we found no racial or ethnic differences in reduction of patients’ pain scores, it is troubling to see marked differences in how that pain was managed.”

Dr. Goyal and colleagues are planning future research that will examine the factors that inform how and why emergency room physicians prescribe opioid analgesics.

American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition presentation

  • “Racial and ethnic differences in the management of pain among children diagnosed with long bone fractures in pediatric emergency departments.”

Monika K. Goyal, M.D., MSCE, and James M. Chamberlain, M.D., Children’s National; Tiffani J. Johnson, M.D., MSc, Scott Lorch, M.D., MSCE, and Robert Grundmeier, M.D., Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; Lawrence Cook, Ph.D., Michael Webb, MS, and Cody Olsen, MS, University of Utah School of Medicine; Amy Drendel, DO, MS, Medical College of Wisconsin; Evaline Alessandrini, M.D., MSCE, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital; Lalit Bajaj, M.D., MPH, Denver Children’s Hospital; and Senior Author, Elizabeth Alpern, M.D., MSCE, Lurie Children’s Hospital.

Matthew Oetgen examines a patient

Surgical home program for spinal fusion achieves long-term success

Matthew Oetgen examines a patient

“Our primary goal was to improve the value of care for children with scoliosis and their families,” says Dr. Oetgen. “Even better, we’ve shown that this model can be used consistently over time to maintain the benefits it delivers to this patient population.”

“Creating an effective process that benefits patients, is sustainable long term and doesn’t increase costs is one of the most challenging parts of any new procedure, both in health care and beyond,” says Matt Oetgen, M.D., chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine at Children’s National.

Dr. Oetgen’s team accomplished this feat when building the Children’s National Spinal Fusion Surgical Home. The team used LEAN process mapping at the outset to engage a broad group of care providers who established a collaborative environment that empowered and engaged everyone to take ownership over a new care pathway for every patient who undergoes posterior spinal fusion surgery at the hospital.

This unique model designed using proven business process development tools has allowed patients require fewer pain medications after surgery and have shorter stays in the hospital. Even better, the team has maintained the integrity of the pathway consistently over a longer period of time than any other pediatric spinal fusion care model to date.

“Our primary goal was to improve the value of care for children with scoliosis and their families,” says Dr. Oetgen, who was the study’s lead author. “Even better, we’ve shown that this model can be used consistently over time to maintain the benefits it delivers to this patient population.”

The team conducted a retrospective analysis of prospective data from all patients (213) undergoing posterior spinal fusion at Children’s National Health System from 2014 to 2017, a period of time that captures nearly one year  before implementation of the new pathway and 2.5 years after implementation. The outcomes were reported in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.

As pressure builds to increase the value of care, many hospital systems are trying standardized care pathways for many complex conditions, in an effort to decrease care variability, improve outcomes and decrease cost. Previous research has shown the effectiveness of a variety of standardized pathways with wide ranging goals for spinal fusion procedures, however, most published studies have focused only on the initial success of these pathways. This study is the first to look at the implementation over a period of 2.5 years to gauge whether the process and its effectiveness could be maintained long term.

The authors attribute physician buy-in across disciplines and strict adherence to pathway processes as key to the success of this model. In addition, the team created standardized educational procedures for onboarding new care providers and implemented standardized electronic order sets for both orthopaedic and anesthesia services to make the pathway easy to maintain with little deviation over time. Lean process mapping at the outset included a broad group of care providers who established a collaborative environment that empowered and engaged the entire team to take ownership over the new process.

“We used proven business models for culture change that were critical to the success of this program,” Dr. Oetgen says. “We’re proud of the model we have created and think it would work well in other pediatric hospitals with similar patient populations.”

Children’s National Health System named as member of the Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy’s (PPMD) Certified Duchenne Care Centers

mitochondria

Children’s National Health System is now part of a growing Duchenne care network, becoming the newest member of the Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy’s (PPMD) Certified Duchenne Care Program.

The certification process to become a Certified Duchenne Care Center (CDCC) was grounded in the idea that comprehensive Duchenne care and services should be available and accessible to as many families as possible. By joining the network of PPMD Certified Duchenne Care Centers and standardizing care, Children’s National’s Neuromuscular Medicine Program is also improving Duchenne research and clinical trials by decreasing variability in care and increasing the quality of clinical trial outcome measures. This results in accelerating the time it takes therapies to reach the patients who need them.

By allowing neuromuscular patients of all diagnoses access to the comprehensive teams of sub-specialists serving the Duchenne population, Children’s National and other PPMD Certified Duchenne Care Centers will improve the care of all patients with neuromuscular diagnoses.

Making the grade: Children’s National is nation’s Top 5 children’s hospital

Children’s National rose in rankings to become the nation’s Top 5 children’s hospital according to the 2018-19 Best Children’s Hospitals Honor Roll released June 26, 2018, by U.S. News & World Report. Additionally, for the second straight year, Children’s Neonatology division led by Billie Lou Short, M.D., ranked No. 1 among 50 neonatal intensive care units ranked across the nation.

Children’s National also ranked in the Top 10 in six additional services:

For the eighth year running, Children’s National ranked in all 10 specialty services, which underscores its unwavering commitment to excellence, continuous quality improvement and unmatched pediatric expertise throughout the organization.

“It’s a distinct honor for Children’s physicians, nurses and employees to be recognized as the nation’s Top 5 pediatric hospital. Children’s National provides the nation’s best care for kids and our dedicated physicians, neonatologists, surgeons, neuroscientists and other specialists, nurses and other clinical support teams are the reason why,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., Children’s President and CEO. “All of the Children’s staff is committed to ensuring that our kids and families enjoy the very best health outcomes today and for the rest of their lives.”

The excellence of Children’s care is made possible by our research insights and clinical innovations. In addition to being named to the U.S. News Honor Roll, a distinction awarded to just 10 children’s centers around the nation, Children’s National is a two-time Magnet® designated hospital for excellence in nursing and is a Leapfrog Group Top Hospital. Children’s ranks seventh among pediatric hospitals in funding from the National Institutes of Health, with a combined $40 million in direct and indirect funding, and transfers the latest research insights from the bench to patients’ bedsides.

“The 10 pediatric centers on this year’s Best Children’s Hospitals Honor Roll deliver exceptional care across a range of specialties and deserve to be highlighted,” says Ben Harder, chief of health analysis at U.S. News. “Day after day, these hospitals provide state-of-the-art medical expertise to children with complex conditions. Their U.S. News’ rankings reflect their commitment to providing high-quality care.”

The 12th annual rankings recognize the top 50 pediatric facilities across the U.S. in 10 pediatric specialties: cancer, cardiology and heart surgery, diabetes and endocrinology, gastroenterology and gastrointestinal surgery, neonatology, nephrology, neurology and neurosurgery, orthopedics, pulmonology and urology. Hospitals received points for being ranked in a specialty, and higher-ranking hospitals receive more points. The Best Children’s Hospitals Honor Roll recognizes the 10 hospitals that received the most points overall.

This year’s rankings will be published in the U.S. News & World Report’s “Best Hospitals 2019” guidebook, available for purchase in late September.

Pedbot video game

New robotic therapies for cerebral palsy

Little girl on hippobot

The hippobot is a mechanical horseback riding simulator that provides hippotherapy for children.

Cerebral palsy is the most common type of movement disorder in children, affecting 1 in 500 babies born each year. For these infants, learning to sit up, stand and walk can be a big challenge which often requires years of physical therapy to stretch and strengthen their muscles. A team led by Kevin Cleary, Ph.D., technical director of the Bioengineering Initiative at Children’s National Health System, and Sally Evans, M.D., director of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine at Children’s National, has created two new types of robotic therapy that they hope will make physical therapy more enjoyable and accessible for children.

Hippobot equine therapy simulator

One of the most effective types of therapy for children with cerebral palsy is hippotherapy, which uses horseback riding to rehabilitate children with neurological and musculoskeletal disabilities. The movement of horses helps riders with cerebral palsy improve endurance, balance and core strength, which in turns helps them gain the ability to sit without support. If a child with cerebral palsy does not master independent sitting early in life, he or she may never gain the ability to stand or walk. Unfortunately, many children never have the chance to experience hippotherapy due to geographical constraints and cost issues.

To increase patient access to hippotherapy, the bioengineering team (Reza Monfaredi, Ph.D.; Hadi Fooladi Talari, M.S.; Pooneh Roshani Tabrizi, Ph.D.; and Tyler Salvador, B.S.) developed the hippobot — a mechanical horseback riding simulator that provides hippotherapy for children ages 4 to 10 in the office setting. To create the hippobot, the researchers mounted a carousel horse on a six-degree of freedom commercial motion platform (the platform moves in the x, y and z directions and rotates about roll, pitch and yaw axes). They then programmed the platform to simulate a horse walking, trotting and cantering.

“Several experienced horse riders have tried the motion platform and commented that it gives a realistic feel,” says Dr. Cleary.

The team then incorporated optical tracking of the hippobot rider’s spine and pelvis to monitor their posture and created a virtual reality video display that simulates a horse moving down a pier. As other animals come towards the horse, the rider must lean right or left to avoid them.  The trackers on their back show which way they are leaning and feed that information into the gaming system.

“We wanted to see how the patient’s spine reacts as the horse moves through different patterns, and if the patients get better at maintaining their posture over several sessions,” says Dr. Cleary.

To date the system has been used with several children with cerebral palsy under an IRB-approved study. All of the participants enjoyed riding the horse and came back for multiple sessions.

The hippobot system was developed in close collaboration with the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Division at Children’s National, including Olga Morozova, M.D., Justin Burton, M.D., and Justine Belschner, P.T.

Pedbot ankle rehabilitation system

Pedbot video game

Patients use pedbot as an input device to pilot an airplane through a series of hoops. The level of the difficulty of the game can be easily adjusted based on the patient’s capability and physical condition.

More than half of children with cerebral palsy also have gait impairment as a result of excessive plantar flexion and foot inversion/eversion, or equinovarus/equinovalgus at their ankle and foot. To help these patients, Dr. Cleary’s team developed the pedbot — a small robot platform that enables better strengthening, motor control and range of motion in the ankle joint.

“Children with cerebral palsy have difficulty walking in part because they have trouble controlling their feet,” explains Dr. Evans. “Use of pedbot as part of therapy can help to give them increased control of their feet.”

Most ankle rehabilitation robots are limited in their movements, and have only one or two degrees of freedom, focusing on ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion and sometimes inversion/eversion. Pedbot is unique in that it has three degrees of freedom with a remote center of motion in the ankle joint area that allows it to move in ways other devices can’t.

The pedbot platform can move in three translational directions (x, y and z) and also rotate about three axes (the x, y and z axes). As an analogy, this is similar to the movement of a flight simulator. The system also includes motors and encoders at each axis and can be used in passive and active modes.

In both modes, the patient sits on a therapy chair with their foot strapped to the robotic device. In the passive mode, the therapist assists the patient in training motions along each axis. The robot can then repeat the motion under therapist supervision while incrementally increasing the range of motion as desired by the therapist.

For the active mode or “gaming” mode, the team developed a video game based on an airplane motif. Patients use pedbot as an input device to pilot an airplane through a series of hoops. The level of the difficulty of the game can be easily adjusted based on the patient’s capability and physical condition.

To date, four patients have participated in an IRB-approved clinical trial for the pedbot. All of the patients enjoyed the game and they were willing to continue to participate as suggested by a physiotherapist.

The pedbot team, in addition to the engineers mentioned above, includes Catherine Coley, P.T.; Stacey Kovelman, P.T.; and Sara Alyamani, B.A. In future work, they plan to expand the system to include electromyography measurements with Paola Pergami, M.D.,Ph.D. They also are planning to develop a low cost, 3D printed version for the home market so children can do Pedbot therapy every day.

Benjamin Martin and Anjna Melwani

Children’s National orthopaedic surgery experts prepare for the 2018 POSNA annual meeting

The Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) will hold its 2018 annual meeting May 9-12, 2018 in Austin, TX. POSNA is dedicated to improving the care of children with musculoskeletal disorders through education, research and advocacy. Along with 1,400 othopeadic surgeons, physicians and other health care professionals, experts from Children’s National will attend and participate in the following activities:

  • Matthew Oetgen, M.D., M.B.A., Division Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, along with hospitalists Rita Fleming, M.D., and Anjna Melwani, M.D., will give a presentation on quality, safety and value titled, “Hospitalist co-management of pediatric orthopedic patients improves outcomes and quality processes.”
  • Danielle Putur, M.D., Miguel Pelton, M.D., Niharika Patel, M.P.H., and Emily Niu, M.D., will present a poster titled, “ACL growth with age in the skeletally immature: an MRI study.”
  • Benjamin Martin, M.D., will present a poster titled, “The effectiveness of intrathecal morphine compared to oral methadone for postoperative pain control after posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.”
Benjamin Martin, M.D., and Anjna Melwani, M.D., are among the experts from Children’s National who will be presenting at the POSNA annual meeting.

Benjamin Martin, M.D., and Anjna Melwani, M.D., are among the experts from Children’s National who will be presenting at the POSNA annual meeting.

As a newly elected POSNA board member, Dr. Oetgen will also preside over the clinical award session, as well as chair the Spine Subspecialty Day, which is designed to update surgeons on current, cutting-edge topics and provide tips and tricks on a range of issues related to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and moderate a discussion at this year’s meeting.

Additionally, Benjamin Martin, M.D., recently won the 2017 POSNA Clinical Trials Planning Grant – “The Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Clinical Trials Planning Grant.”

Visit the POSNA website to find out more information on this year’s conference.

Matthew Oetgen

3D printed implant used to repair knee cartilage

Matthew Oetgen

“Our preliminary study shows this novel 3D printed material is able to allow ingrowth from the bone, so the body started to grow into the material to help fix it in place,” says Matthew Oetgen, M.D., M.B.A. “These are the first step requirements for an implant like this to be acceptable for treating lesions.”

Every year, an estimated 1 million children tear the articulate cartilage that lines their knees. Unfortunately, these types of injuries are extremely hard to repair because of the cartilage’s poor healing qualities and unique physiochemical properties.

Now, a new study by Children’s National Health System researchers has found that a three dimensional (3D) printed synthetic implant can be successfully used as a scaffold to encourage the healing and repair of articulate cartilage lesions.

Three bones meet in the knee joint: the femur, the tibia and the patella. The surface of these bones is covered with articulate cartilage, which can be damaged by injury or by normal wear and tear. Because articulate cartilage has poor healing qualities, these injuries will rarely heal or regenerate on their own, especially in younger and more active patients.

“These are active 12 to 19 year olds, so it can really affect relatively normal kids,” says Matthew Oetgen, M.D., M.B.A., Division Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine at Children’s National. “While there are many ways to repair these lesions — from implanting autogenous cells to using grafts to fill the defect — none of these options are perfect, and they all have some down sides.”

To facilitate repair of these injuries, a team of researchers led by Dr. Oetgen received a grant from the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) to design a 3D printed implant that promotes bone and cartilage growth.

To make the implant, the team used nanoporous thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), a biodegradable material that is highly elastic and yet strong, very much like the native cartilage in the osteochondral region. TPU is also porous, which allows blood and nutrient flow through the implant.

“The implant is designed to allow native cells to repair the lesions with normal articular cartilage and not scar tissues like some repairs,” says Dr. Oetgen.

The implant itself has a stratified structure: an upper region that contains micro channels to allow for increased perfusion; a middle zone with a nanoporous structure that mimics porous cartilage and encourages stem cell recruitment, growth and differentiation; and a lower region, or articular surface, that allows for smooth transition from the articulating surface to the implant surface and minimizes adverse interactions between the articulate cartilage and the meniscus.

When tested in vitro, the implant was able to support the growth of stem cells and vascular cells, and structurally mature vascularized bone was formed around the implant after 10 days. In animal models with full thickness osteochondral lesions the implant did just as well: The scaffold was able to promote bone, soft tissue and vascular growth without eliciting an immune response.

“Our preliminary study shows this novel 3D printed material is able to allow ingrowth from the bone, so the body started to grow into the material to help fix it in place,” says Dr. Oetgen. “These are the first step requirements for an implant like this to be acceptable for treating lesions.”

Because of the ease with which 3D printing can be scaled up, Dr. Oetgen is hopeful that the implant will one day become a viable option for repairing articulate cartilage injuries. He plans on trying the implants in a larger animal model and on larger lesions, and is also looking at custom printing for the implants to match natural lesion shapes and sizes.

Scoliosis X-ray image

Improved procedures, reduced harm: Moving the needle on spinal fusion

Scoliosis X-ray image

In many cases of pediatric scoliosis, a surgical posterior spinal fusion – a life-changing yet complicated process – is needed to straighten the spine.

As part of its ongoing transition to value-based care, Children’s National is constantly reevaluating systems and processes across specialties and proactively seeking ways to deliver the highest quality care. This includes treatments for everything from the rarest of diseases to more frequent conditions, such as pediatric scoliosis.

In many cases of pediatric scoliosis, a surgical posterior spinal fusion – a life-changing yet complicated process – is needed to straighten the spine. The procedure involves permanently fusing bones over the curved part of the spine and requires expert coordination among physicians, nurses and therapists. To improve the procedure and make it as safe and efficient as possible, experts at Children’s National developed a first-of-its-kind pediatric spinal fusion surgical home, an innovative, family-centered approach that is making a real impact.

Prior to this initiative, patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion to treat scoliosis spent multiple days across multiple units in the hospital. Thanks to a comprehensive care pathway with input from all care providers treating these patients, overall recovery time has been reduced as well as days in the hospital. This in turn decreased the costs to both the families and Children’s National.

In the first six months of implementation, changes included decreasing the average length of stay from approximately five days to three and a half days, decreased blood transfusion rate and less use of opioid pain medications. Each of these pieces directly contributes to the safety of a child and decreased costs across the board. Ultimately, implementing cutting-edge practices like these brings the organization closer to zero harm and helps move the needle on patient care across the industry.

Femoral fracture

POSNA grant addresses variations in femoral fracture treatment

Femoral fracture

While there are plenty of options for treating pediatric femoral diaphyseal fractures, doctors don’t have a lot of specific guidance on the optimal regimen for each patient age, fracture location and fracture pattern.

Pediatric femoral diaphyseal fractures are some of the most common types of long bone fractures. There are many effective ways to treat these injuries, but unfortunately this assortment of options also leads to variations in cost and clinical outcome for patients and makes it difficult to develop clinical trials exploring the treatment of pediatric femur fractures.

To address this issue, a Children’s National research team led by Matthew Oetgen, M.D., M.B.A., Division Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, received a $30,000 grant from the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) to design a multi-centered, randomized, controlled clinical trial for the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures. The team’s ultimate goal is to submit the resulting trial design to an extramural agency for study funding.

While there are plenty of options for treating pediatric femoral diaphyseal fractures, doctors don’t have a lot of specific guidance on the optimal regimen for each patient age, fracture location and fracture pattern. As a result, many treatment decisions are based on surgeon preference, regional variation in care and previous training or experience.

Another issue that arises in the treatment of diaphyseal femur fractures is the impact on the patient’s family. In general, femur fractures are caused by significant trauma that affects both the patient and the family members. On top of this, families are faced with issues such as extended hospitalization, the need for wheelchairs and walkers, pain control, missed school and secondary surgeries for removal of implants. Often, families are left to their own devices to resolve these issues, many of which are more impactful than the injury itself.

Dr. Oetgen believes that a well-planned and well-structured randomized clinical trial guided by patient and family concerns as well as expert surgical opinion has the potential to improve both treatment and care of femoral diaphyseal fracture patients.

“It is no longer good enough to design studies that only look at healing time for femur fractures,” explains Dr. Oetgen. “These injuries have such significant secondary impacts for the families of these patients, we need to determine which treatment is optimal for both fracture healing and is easiest for the families to tolerate. This grant will allow us to consider all of these outcomes in designing a study to find the best treatment for these injuries.”

To aid in the design of their clinical trial, Dr. Oetgen and his team will:

  1. Conduct an extensive literature review on the impact and treatment of pediatric femur fractures.
  2. Survey a diverse group of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons to establish areas of agreement, opposition and equipoise on the surgical treatment of pediatric femur fractures, and use that information to form a consensus opinion on the optimal design of the clinical trial.
  3. Solicit input from non-physician stakeholders (families, parents, payers, state Medicaid representatives, patient advocacy groups, professional organizations) on the important aspects of care in pediatric femur fracture treatment.

The team expects to have the study design competed by February 2019.

Clubfoot

Assessing clubfoot recurrence rates and causes

Clubfoot

A Children’s National research team performed a structured literature review to determine the reported rates of clubfoot correction and recurrence after the Ponseti technique and to identify factors that contribute to these issues.

Clubfoot, or talipes equinovarus, is a congenital foot deformity that affects the bones, muscles, tendons and blood vessels in the feet. It occurs in approximately 1 to 3 of every 1,000 births and is traditionally treated with the nonsurgical Ponseti technique, which uses manipulation and casting to correct the condition. Unfortunately, recurrence of clubfoot after treatment is somewhat common.

A Children’s National research team led by Matthew Oetgen, M.D., Division Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, recently performed a structured literature review to determine the reported rates of clubfoot correction and recurrence after the Ponseti technique and to identify factors that contribute to these issues.

Ponseti treatment is generally administered during the first few weeks of life in order to take advantage of the elasticity of tissues forming the ligaments, joint capsules and tendons. These structures are stretched with weekly, gentle manipulations, and a plaster cast is applied after each session to retain the degree of correction obtained and to soften the ligaments. Over the course of six to eight weeks, the displaced bones are brought into the correct alignment. In order to maintain this alignment, braces are then worn for 23 hours a day for up to three months, and then at night for two to four years.

Matthew Oetgen

The team, led by Matthew Oetgen, M.D., determined that the average rate for correction of clubfoot via the Ponseti technique is 95 percent, with a recurrence rate of 23 percent.

The team from Children’s National, which included Princeton intern Michelle Richardson and Allison Matthews, focused on 81 articles found in the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases. From this data, they determined that the average rate for correction of clubfoot via the Ponseti technique is 95 percent, with a recurrence rate of 23 percent.

The researchers also found that 78 percent of recurrence was due to five factors: brace non-compliance, lack of parent education, functional brace issues, casting issues and poor patient tolerance.

Looking further into non-compliance of bracing, the team discovered that the average non-compliance rate was 27 percent, and that factors affecting non-compliance in about half the cases included parent education, financial difficulties, practical brace issues, social difficulties and cultural issues.

The team’s findings should be helpful in establishing programs aimed at decreasing recurrence rates and improving compliance with bracing in children treated for clubfoot.

Karun Sharma

Osteoid osteoma successfully treated with MR-HIFU

Karun Sharma

Doctors from the Sheik Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children’s National Health System have completed a clinical trial that demonstrates how osteoid osteoma, a benign but painful bone tumor that commonly occurs in children and young adults, can be safely and successfully treated using an incisionless surgery method called magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU).

Published in The Journal of Pediatrics on Aug. 17, 2017, the study compares nine patients, ages 6 to 16 years old, who were treated for osteoid osteoma using MR-HIFU with a nine-patient historical control group, ages 6 to 10 years old, who were treated at Children’s National using radiofrequency ablation (RFA) surgery, the standard treatment at most U.S. hospitals. The study results show that treatment using MR-HIFU is feasible and safe for patients, eliminating the incisions or exposure to ionizing radiation that is associated with the RFA procedure. Children’s National is the first U.S. children’s hospital to successfully use MR-HIFU to treat osteoid osteoma.

CT-guided RFA, the most commonly used osteoid osteoma treatment, requires drilling through muscle and soft tissue into bone and also exposes the patient and operator to radiation from the imaging necessary to guide the probe that is inserted to heat and destroy tumor tissue.

“Our objective is to provide a noninvasive treatment option for children with osteoid osteoma and we’re very pleased with the results of this clinical trial,” says Karun Sharma, M.D., Ph.D., director of Interventional Radiology at Children’s National and principal investigator for the osteoid osteoma trial. “We have now shown that MR-HIFU can be performed safely with clinical improvement that is comparable to RFA, but without any incisions or ionizing radiation exposure to children.”

High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy uses focused sound wave energy to heat and destroy the targeted tumor under MRI guidance. This precise and controlled method does not require a scalpel or needle, greatly reducing the risk of complications like infections and bone fractures. It is also a faster treatment option, with expected total procedure time of 90 minutes or less. In the U.S., MR-HIFU is used to treat uterine fibroids and painful bone metastases from several types of cancer in adults, but has not previously been used in children.

This breakthrough is the latest from the Image-Guided Non-Invasive Therapeutic Energy (IGNITE) program, a collaboration of the Sheikh Zayed Institute and the departments of RadiologyOncologySurgery, and Anesthesiology at Children’s National. The goal of the IGNITE program is to improve the quality of life and outcomes for pediatric patients through the development and clinical introduction of novel minimally invasive and noninvasive surgery technologies and combination therapy approaches. The team is led by Peter Kim, M.D., Ph.D., vice president of the Sheikh Zayed Institute.

“The use of MR-HIFU ablation of osteoid osteoma is a perfect example of our mission in the Sheikh Zayed Institute to make pediatric surgery more precise, less invasive and pain-free,” says Dr. Kim. “Our leading team of experts are also exploring the use of MR-HIFU as a noninvasive technique of ablating growth plates and pediatric solid tumors. We also have another clinical trial open for children and young adults with refractory soft tissue tumors, which is being performed in collaboration with Dr. Bradford Wood’s team at the National Institutes of Health, and if successful, it would be the first in the world.”

In addition to Drs. Sharma and Kim, the Children’s National team for the ablation of osteoid osteoma clinical trial included: AeRang Kim, M.D., Ph.D., pediatric oncologist; Matthew Oetgen, M.D., division chief of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine; Anilawan Smitthimedhin, M.D., radiology research fellow; Pavel Yarmolenko, Ph.D., Haydar Celik, Ph.D., and Avinash Eranki, engineers; and Janish Patel, M.D., and Domiciano Santos, M.D., pediatric anesthesiologists. Ari Partanen, Ph.D., a senior clinical scientist from Philips, was also a member.

$250K awarded to six winners presenting innovative pediatric medical devices

SZI Symposium Winners

Six companies presenting innovative medical device solutions that address significant unmet needs in pediatric health were awarded a total of $250,000 in grant money yesterday in San Jose, Calif. at the Fifth Annual Pediatric Device Innovation Symposium, organized by the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children’s National Health System.

The “Make Your Medical Device Pitch for Kids!” competition is sponsored by the National Capital Consortium for Pediatric Device Innovation (NCC-PDI), an FDA-funded consortium led by Children’s National and the A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland. Four companies were awarded $50,000 each and two were awarded $25,000. The six winners were selected from a field of twelve finalists. A record 98 total submissions from five countries were received for the competition this year.

“To improve care for children, it is imperative that we recognize and encourage relevant new solutions in pediatric medical devices, especially in light of the challenges innovators face in addressing this specialized market,” said Kurt Newman, M.D., president and CEO of Children’s National. “Children’s National is committed to fostering collaboration among innovators, clinicians, policy makers and investors to advance pediatric device development for the benefit of children everywhere.”

This year’s winning innovations receiving $50,000 awards are:

  • CorInnova, Houston, Texas – soft robotic, non-blood-contacting biventricular cardiac assist device for the treatment of heart failure in children
  • Green Sun Medical, Fort Collins, Colo. – novel device that provides necessary pressure for the correction of spinal deformity while providing real-time feedback to clinicians
  • Hub Hygiene and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. – low-cost, single-use cleaning technology to prevent central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), a hospital-acquired infection by pediatric ICU patients
  • NAVi Medical Technologies, Houston, Texas – device to provide accurate information about the localization of an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) used in critically-ill newborns to reduce the risk of catheter malposition

Winning innovations receiving $25,000 awards are:

  • Prapela, LLC, Boston, Mass. – novel “baby box” that will allow for a non-pharmacological approach to help drug-exposed infants relax and sleep during withdrawal and post-withdrawal care
  • X-Biomedical, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. – portable surgical microscope for use in surgeries for treatable causes of blindness in low-income countries and under-resourced setting

“We are honored to recognize these outstanding innovations with this funding,” said Kolaleh Eskandanian, Ph.D., executive director of the Sheikh Zayed Institute and NCC-PDI. “We are even more excited about welcoming this new cohort of companies to our family of pediatric device startups and entrepreneurs. Together we can move the needle a bit faster and safer to bring pediatric products to market.”

She added that in addition to the financial support and consultation services through NCC-PDI, the awardees can leverage the validation received through this highly competitive process to raise the additional capital needed for commercialization. Since inception in 2013, NCC-PDI has supported 67 pediatric devices and the companies and research labs owning these devices have collectively raised $55 million in additional funding.

The twelve finalists each made five-minute presentations to the symposium audience and then responded to judges’ questions. Finalists also included Anecare, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah; ApnoSystems, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Deton Corp., Pasadena, Calif.; Kite Medical, Dublin, Ireland; Moyarta 2, LLC, The Plains, Va.; and Oculogica, Inc., New York, N.Y.

Serving on the distinguished panel of judges were Susan Alpert, M.D., of SFA Consulting, a former director of the FDA Office of Device Evaluation and former senior vice president and chief regulatory officer of Medtronic; Charles Berul, M.D., co-director, Children’s National Heart Institute; Andrew Elbardissi, M.D., of Deerfield Management; Rick Greenwald, Ph.D., of the New England Pediatric Device Consortium (NEPDC); James Love, J.D., of Oblon; Josh Makower, M.D., of NEA; Jennifer McCaney, Ph.D., of MedTech Innovator; Jackie Phillips, M.D., of Johnson & Johnson; and Tracy Warren of Astarte Ventures.

The pitch competition is a highlight of the annual symposium organized by the Sheikh Zayed Institute at Children’s National, designed to foster innovation that will advance pediatric healthcare and address the unmet surgical and medical device needs for children. New this year, the symposium co-located in a joint effort with The MedTech Conference powered by AdvaMed, the premier gathering of medtech professionals in North America.

Keynote speakers at the event included Daniel Kraft, M.D., faculty chair of Medicine & Neuroscience, Singularity University and executive director, Exponential Medicine; Vasum Peiris, M.D., chief medical officer, Pediatrics and Special Populations, FDA;  and Alan Flake, M.D., director of Center for Fetal Research, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Panel discussions focused on gap funding for pediatric innovation, the journey from ideation to commercialization, and the pediatric device needs assessment in the future regulatory environment.