The CN-NIAID Virtual Symposium highlighted work being done to fight the COVID-19 pandemic globally.
Pediatric orthopaedic surgery as a field is focused on improving quality and value in pediatric spine surgery, especially when it comes to eliminating surgical site infections (SSI). Many studies have documented how and why surgical site infections occur in pediatric spinal fusion patients, however, there is very little data about what approaches are most effective at reducing SSIs for these patients in a sustainable way.
At the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America’s 2020 Annual Meeting, Matthew Oetgen, M.D., MBA, chief of orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine at Children’s National Hospital, presented findings from a long-term single institution study of acute SSI prevention measures.
“These findings give us specific insight into the tactics that are truly preventing, and in our case sometimes even eliminating, SSIs for pediatric scoliosis surgery,” says Dr. Oetgen, who also served on the annual meeting program committee. “By analyzing patient records across more than a decade, we were able to see that some strategies are quite effective, and others, that we thought would move the needle, just don’t.”
The team reviewed medical records and radiographs dating back to 2008 for 1,195 patients who had spinal fusion for scoliosis, including idiopathic scoliosis as well as other forms such as neuromuscular or syndromic scoliosis. Over that period of time, the division of orthopaedics and sports medicine at Children’s National was collaborating with the hospital’s infection control team to achieve several programmatic implementation milestones, including:
- January 2012: Standardized infection surveillance program
- July 2013: Standardized perioperative infection control protocols including those for pre-operative surgical site wash, surgical site preparation and administration of antibiotics before and after surgery
- March 2015: Standardized comprehensive spinal care pathway including protocols for patient temperature control, fluid and blood management, and drain and catheter management
Over the study time period, the team found that SSIs did decrease, but interestingly, the rate did not progressively decrease with each subsequent intervention.
“Instead, we found that the rate went down and was even eliminated for some subgroups when the perioperative infection control protocols were implemented in 2013 and sustained through the study period end,” says Dr. Oetgen. “The other programmatic efforts that started in 2012 and 2015 had no impact on infection rates.”
He also notes that the study’s findings have identified a crucial component in the process for infection control in pediatric spinal surgery—perioperative protocols. “A relatively uncomplicated perioperative infection control protocol did the best job decreasing SSI in spinal fusion. Future efforts to optimize this particular protocol may help improve the rates even further.”
POSNA’s Annual Meeting content, including Dr. Oetgen’s presentation, is available from May 13, 2020 through December 31, 2020.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth has been crucial in allowing doctors to maintain safe contact with patients who require ongoing medical care without an office visit. Just as important is the role that telehealth is playing to connect care providers with each other to ensure that everyone around the world has the information they need to provide the best care possible for this swift-moving disease.
One good example of this specialist-to-specialist thought leadership connection is the ongoing weekly meeting hosted by the Children’s National Hospital cardiac critical care specialists. Since early in the spread of COVID-19, the Cardiac-ICU team, led by cardiovascular specialists including Ricardo Munoz, M.D., chief of cardiac critical care medicine and executive director of telehealth at Children’s National, have connected pediatric clinicians around the world to discuss how best to care for particularly vulnerable patients with pre-existing heart diseases, and to discuss breaking news in epidemiology of the disease and the effectiveness of various treatment approaches.
The video conference attracts hundreds of physicians and nurses who specialize in pediatric cardiac care from countries all over the world. In the last week of April, the meeting featured a late-breaking session to discuss new pediatric intensive care observations of inflammatory symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease, which were being detected in the United Kingdom, Paris and the United States. While more information is needed about this discovery, the ability of these experts to gather and compare disease phenotypes from country to country facilitates both the additional classification of pediatric-related symptoms and improves how all centers, no matter their location, can prepare to treat children who present locally with these symptoms.
In recent weeks, cardiac physicians and nurses from some of the world’s hardest hit regions, including Italy and Spain, have shared detailed information about their on-the-ground experiences to help colleagues in the U.S. and elsewhere better prepare for new developments.
“This new disease is a moving target, especially when it comes to understanding how it might impact children and adults with existing cardiac disease, particularly those with congenital heart disease,” says Dr. Munoz. “It is extremely important that we learn from each other, especially when we are able to connect with our colleagues in the epicenters of the most serious outbreaks of COVID-19. We are happy to host this important weekly meeting with the goal of helping every specialist keep as many patients with cardiac diseases as safe as possible throughout the global health emergency.”
If you would like to join these weekly telehealth meetings, please send your request to COVIDMultiCICUResponse@childrensnational.org.
Children’s National Hospital researchers for the first time have isolated bacterial extracellular vesicles from the blood of healthy donors, a critical step to better understanding the way gut bacteria communicate with the rest of the body via the bloodstream.
For decades, researchers considered circulating bacterial extracellular vesicles as bothersome flotsam to be jettisoned as they sought to tease out how bacteria that reside in the gut whisper messages to the brain.
There is a growing appreciation that extracellular vesicles – particles that cells naturally release – actually facilitate intracellular communication.
“In the past, we thought they were garbage or noise,” says Robert J. Freishtat, M.D., MPH, associate director, Center for Genetic Medicine Research at Children’s National Research Institute. “It turns out what we throw away is not trash.”
Kylie Krohmaly, a graduate student in Dr. Freishtat’s laboratory, has isolated from blood, extracellular vesicles from Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, common bacteria that colonize the gut, and validated the results via electron microscopy.
“The images are interesting because they look like they have a bit of a halo around them or penumbra,” Krohmaly says.
The team theorizes that the solar eclipse lookalikes contain important signaling proteins and chromatin, DNA from the human host.
“It’s the first time anyone has pulled them out of blood. Detecting them is one thing. Pulling them out is a critical step to understanding the language the microbiome uses as it speaks with its human host,” Dr. Freishtat adds.
Krohmaly’s technique is so promising that the Children’s National team filed a provisional patent.
The Children’s research team has devised a way to gum up the cellular works so that bacteria no longer become antibiotic resistant. Targeted bacteria retain the ability to make antibiotic-resistance RNA, but like a relay runner dropping rather than passing a baton, the bacteria are thwarted from advancing beyond that step. And, because that gene is turned off, the bacteria are newly sensitive to antibiotics – instead of resistant bacteria multiplying like clockwork these bacteria get killed.
“Our plan is to hijack this process in order to turn off antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria,” Dr. Freishtat says. “Ultimately, if a child who has an ear infection can no longer take amoxicillin, the antibiotic would be given in tandem with the bacteria-derived booster to turn off bacteria’s ability to become antibiotic resistant. This one-two punch could become a novel way of addressing the antibiotic resistance process.”
ISEV2020 Annual Meeting presentation
(Timing may be subject to change due to COVID-19 safety precautions)
Oral with poster session 3: Neurological & ID
Saturday May 23, 2020, 5 p.m. to 5:05 p.m. (ET)
“Detection of bacterial extracellular vesicles in blood from healthy volunteers”
Kylie Krohmaly, lead author; Claire Hoptay, co-author; Andrea Hahn, M.D., MS, infectious disease specialist and co-author; Robert J. Freishtat, M.D., MPH, associate director, Center for Genetic Medicine Research at Children’s National Research Institute and senior author.
Unfortunately, we’ve been notified that the ENDO2020 conference has been canceled due to concerns of COVID-19. Because of this, we will not be hosting our reception in honor of Andrew Dauber, M.D., on Sunday, March 29.
We hope to see you at a future Endocrinology or Pediatric Endocrinology event.
Children’s National Hospital is incredibly proud of the work Dr. Dauber has done in the endocrinology community.
Andrew Dauber, M.D., MMSc, division chief of Endocrinology at Children’s National Hospital, will be awarded the 2020 Richard E. Weitzman Outstanding Early Career Investigator Award at ENDO 2020. The prestigious award will be presented at the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in recognition of Dauber’s work in understanding the regulation of growth and puberty, and applying innovative genetic technologies to studying pediatric endocrinology. Dauber credits many collaborators throughout the world, as well as the team at Children’s National for the award.
With a five-year grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Dauber and colleagues from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Boston Children’s Hospital and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia are using electronic health records to identify children who likely have rare genetic growth disorders. Using cutting-edge DNA sequencing technologies, including whole exome sequencing, the researchers are aiming to identify novel genetic causes of severe growth disorders. The first paper describing genetic findings in patients with high IGF-1 levels was published in Hormone Research in Paediatrics in December 2019.
Dauber and researchers at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center are exploring how to treat patients with mutations in the PAPPA2 gene. In 2016, the group described the first patients with mutations in this gene who had decreased the bioavailability of IGF-1, stunting their growth and development. In their current phase of research, findings are emphasizing the importance of this gene in regulating IGF-1 bioavailability throughout childhood. The ultimate aim is to create therapies to increase IGF-1 bioavailability, thereby supporting healthy growth and development in children. Their first study to track PAPPA2 and intact IBGBP-3 concentrations throughout childhood was published in the European Journal of Endocrinology in January 2020.
Dauber is particularly interested in studying children with dominantly inherited forms of short stature. Along with collaborators in Cincinnati, he currently has an ongoing treatment trial using growth hormone in patients with Aggrecan gene mutations. Dauber hopes to announce soon a new clinical trial for children with all forms of dominantly inherited short stature.
Study upon study has shown us that there are many factors that affect an individual’s height and growth. As these studies and the conversation around how to identify and address genomic anomalies become more prevalent, the team at Children’s National is increasingly interested in engaging with other centers around the country. In the coming months, the Children’s National Research & Innovation Campus will open on the grounds of the former Walter Reed Army Medical Center, which will serve as a one-of-a-kind pediatric research and innovation hub. A critical component to this campus is the co-location of Children’s National research with key partners and incubator space.
This past fall, Nadia Merchant, M.D., joined Children’s National Hospital as an endocrinologist in the Endocrinology and Diabetes Department. Dr. Merchant received her undergraduate and medical education at Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. She completed her pediatric residency at Wright State Boonshoft School of Medicine. She then completed her genetics residency and pediatric endocrine fellowship at Baylor College of Medicine/Texas Children’s Hospital.
Dr. Merchant was born with acromesomelic dysplasia, a rare genetic disorder, but that hasn’t stopped her from pursuing her medical career. While at Baylor College of Medicine, Dr. Merchant was very active in quality improvement projects, research and organizations that raise awareness of endocrine related conditions. For several years, she was a moderator at Baylor College of Medicine for “From Stress to Strength,” at a course for parents of children with genetic disorders and autism. Dr. Merchant also served as an endocrine fellow representative on the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Endocrinology (SOEn) for the last two years and also served on the committee for a Bone and Mineral special interest group within the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES). During medical school, she worked with Positive Exposure, an organization that uses visual arts to celebrate human diversity for individuals living with genetic, physical, behavioral and intellectual differences.
During the 2019 Endocrine Society Annual Meeting, Dr. Merchant won the Presidential Poster Award for her poster presentation: Assessing Metacarpal Cortical Thickness as a Tool to Evaluate Bone Density Compared to DXA in Osteogenesis Imperfecta a research project assessing whether hand film is an additional tool to detect low bone mineral density in children.
Dr. Nadia Merchant is currently one of the endocrinologists in the multidisciplinary bone health clinic at Children’s National, a clinic dedicated to addressing and improving bone health in children. Dr. Merchant also manages endocrine manifestations in children with rare genetic disorders.
The Endocrinology department at Children’s National is ranked among the best in the nation by “U.S. News & World Report”.
Of the 200 million people around the globe infected with Schistosomiasis, about 100 million of them were sickened by the parasite Schistosoma haematobium. As the body reacts to millions of eggs laid by the blood flukes, people can develop fever, cough and abdominal pain, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Schistosomiasis triggered by S. haematobium can also include hematuria, bladder calcification and bladder cancer.
Despite the prevalence of this disease, there are few experimental models specifically designed to study it, and some tried-and-true preclinical models don’t display the full array of symptoms seen in humans. It’s also unclear how S. haematobium eggs deposited in the host bladder modulate local tissue gene expression.
To better understand the interplay between the parasite and its human host, a team led by Children’s National Hospital injected 6,000 S. haematobium eggs into the bladder wall of seven-week-old experimental models.
After four days, they isolated RNA for analysis, comparing differences in gene expression in various treatment groups, including those that had received the egg injection and experimental models whose bladders were not exposed to surgical intervention.
Using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) – a tool that helps researchers understand the biological meaning of a long list of genes – the team identified commonalities with other pathways, including malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and the p53 signaling pathway, the team recently presented during the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2019 annual meeting. Some 325 genes were differentially expressed, including 34 genes in common with previous microarray data.
“Of particular importance, we found upregulation in genes associated with inflammation and fibrosis. We also now know that the body may send it strongest response on the first day it encounters a bolus of eggs,” says Michael Hsieh, M.D., Ph.D., director of transitional urology at Children’s National, and the research project’s senior author. “Next, we need to repeat these experiments and further narrow the list of candidate genes to key genes associated with immunomodulation and bladder cancer.”
In addition to Dr. Hsieh, presentation co-authors include Lead Author Kenji Ishida, Children’s National; Evaristus Mbanefo and Nirad Banskota, National Institutes of Health; James Cody, Vigene Biosciences; Loc Le, Texas Tech University; and Neil Young, University of Melbourne.
Financial support for research described in this post was provided by the National Institutes of Health under award No. R01-DK113504.
IPSE, one of the important proteins excreted by the parasite Schistosoma mansoni infiltrates human cellular nuclei through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones and proteins), a research team led by Children’s National Hospital reported during the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2019 annual meeting.
Because the public health toll from the disease this parasite causes, Schistosomiasis, is second only to malaria in global impact, research teams have been studying its inner workings to help create the next generation of therapies.
In susceptible host cells – like urothelial cells, which line the urinary tract – IPSE modulates gene expression, increasing cell proliferation and angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels). On a positive note, neurons appear better able to fend off its nucleus-infiltrating ways.
“We know that IPSE contributes to the severity of symptoms in Schistosomiasis, which leads some patients to develop bladder cancer, which develops from the urothelial lining of the bladder. Our team’s carefully designed experiments reveal IPSE’s function in the urothelium and point to the potential of IPSE playing a therapeutic role outside of the bladder,” says Michael Hsieh, M.D., Ph.D., director of transitional urology at Children’s National and the research project’s senior author.
In addition to Dr. Hsieh, research co-authors include Evaristus Mbanefo, Ph.D.; Kenji Ishida, Ph.D.; Austin Hester, M.D.; Catherine Forster, M.D.; Rebecca Zee, M.D., Ph.D.; and Christina Ho, M.D., all of Children’s National; Franco Falcone, Ph.D., University of Nottingham; and Theodore Jardetzky, Ph.D., and Luke Pennington, M.D., Ph.D., candidate, both of Stanford University.
Financial support for research described in this post was provided by the National Institutes of Health under award No. R01-DK113504.
The American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA) recognized Albert Oh, M.D., with the 2020 Emerging Leader Award. This award is given to professionals who have been members of ACPA between three to 15 years, and who exhibit exemplary accomplishments and dedication to the issues affecting people with cleft and craniofacial conditions.
The ACPA is an association consisting of professionals who treat and/or perform research on cleft and craniofacial conditions. The nonprofit organization also supports those affected through education and resources through its ACPA Family Services program.
As the director of the Cleft and Craniofacial Program at Children’s National Hospital, Dr. Oh is a leader in the research, surgical treatment and holistic care of cleft and craniofacial patients. He has published over 75 peer-reviewed scientific articles and book chapters. Dr. Oh’s current research interests include the outcomes and safety of cleft and craniofacial procedures, 3-D analysis of craniofacial morphology, Pierre Robin sequence and vascular anomalies.
Dr. Oh says that “It is an honor to be recognized by the ACPA and to share their mission of advancing research and improving outcomes for all those affected by cleft and craniofacial conditions.”
Dr. Oh will be presented with his award during the ACPA’s 77th Annual Meeting in Portland, Or.
Gilbert Vezina, M.D., Director of Neuroradiology in the Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology at Children’s National Hospital, is being recognized at the 2020 American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology 2nd Annual Meeting with the society’s most distinguished honor, the Gold Medal Award.
The American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology (ASPNR) Gold Medal is awarded for both professional and personal excellence, honoring individuals who are superb pediatric neuroradiologists, scientists, and/or physicians, and mentors and who also are truly outstanding people. Recipients have consistently extended themselves beyond self-interest to make contributions to the field of pediatric neuroradiology and as such, have elevated the subspecialty. This medal recognizes the exceptional service and achievements of these individuals.
Dr. Vezina completed his undergraduate degree at the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, Montréal, Canada and medical school at McGill Medical School, Montréal, Canada. He completed a mixed internship at Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; residency in Diagnostic Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts followed by a fellowship in Neuroradiology, Boston, Massachusetts.
He began his career at Children’s National Hospital in 1990. He is currently the Director of the Neuroradiology Program at Children’s National Hospital and Professor of Radiology and Pediatrics at George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington DC. He created the Neuroradiology Fellowship Program in 1993 where he impacted medical students, residents and fellows from around the world. He served as president of ASPNR from 2001-2002 and past President from 2002-2005. He also served as the Interim Chief, Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology at Children’s National for a brief period in 2017.
Congratulations, Dr. Vezina!
The Children’s National Hospital’s Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Program co-hosted the 4th International Symposium on Hypothalamic Hamartomas held in September 2019 in Washington, D.C.
The 2019 Symposium focused on the psychiatric, neuropsychological, neurological and endocrinological comorbidities of Hypothalamic Hamartomas (HH). The participants also looked at treating the whole person – in addition to the tumor – covering the cognitive, physical, emotional and intellectual impacts of HH.
Presenters at the Symposium included experts from around the world, such as Children’s National’s Chief of the Divisions of Child Neurology and of Epilepsy and Neurophysiology,, William D. Gaillard, M.D., who moderated the entire event and served as the HH Symposium Chair on the Symposium Steering Committee. Dr. Gaillard also facilitated a presentation titled “Developing a New Paradigm for Assessing, Surveilling, & Treating HH Comorbidities” and another presentation titled, “Set 3 Year Research Roadmap & Top Priorities.”
Senior Vice President for the Center for Neuroscience & Behavioral Health, Roger Packer, M.D., also presented at the event on treatments being used in other hypothalamic hamartoma syndromes which may possibly have opportunities for success with treatment of HH.
Sean Tabaie served as a lab instructor to guide hands-on applications of the latest devices for treatment of limb deformities.
Earlier this year, Children’s National orthopaedic surgeon Sean Tabaie, M.D., served as a faculty member for one of the most highly regarded courses focused on limb deformities, the 29th Annual Baltimore Limb Deformity Course. The course is presented each year by the International Center for Limb Lengthening.
The event brings together nearly 400 orthopaedic physicians, podiatrists and allied health professionals from 36 countries and 33 states to learn from pre-eminent surgical experts in these conditions. The three-day meeting provides lecture content as well as hands-on opportunities to practice care and treatment of limb deformities in both adults and children.
Dr. Tabaie served as a lab instructor, sharing expertise and in-depth knowledge from the pediatric perspective about how to assess limb alignment and plan corrections for specific deformities. The faculty teams also outlined current best practices for correction of several specific deformities, including Blount’s deformity, using internal and external devices.
“It was an honor to be asked to serve as faculty alongside these pre-eminent leaders in the field of limb deformity,” he says. “It is workshops like these that give us the opportunity to share what we know and also learn from the experience of others. And ultimately, lending expertise to these courses helps everyone more effectively assess and treat limb deformities in children and adults around the world.”
Read more about the course’s esteemed history and its 2020 schedule.
Tailored T-cells specially designed to combat a half dozen viruses are safe and may be effective in preventing and treating multiple viral infections, according to research led by Children’s National Hospital faculty.
Catherine Bollard, M.B.Ch.B., M.D., director of the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research at Children’s National and the study’s senior author, presented the teams’ findings Nov. 8, 2019, during a second-annual symposium jointly held by Children’s National and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Children’s National and NIAID formed a research partnership in 2017 to develop and conduct collaborative clinical research studies focused on young children with allergic, immunologic, infectious and inflammatory diseases. Each year, they co-host a symposium to exchange their latest research findings.
According to the NIH, more than 200 forms of primary immune deficiency diseases impact about 500,000 people in the U.S. These rare, genetic diseases so impair the person’s immune system that they experience repeated and sometimes rare infections that can be life threatening. After a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, brand new stem cells can rebuild the person’s missing or impaired immune system. However, during the window in which the immune system rebuilds, patients can be vulnerable to a host of viral infections.
Because viral infections can be controlled by T-cells, the body’s infection-fighting white blood cells, the Children’s National first-in-humans Phase 1 dose escalation trial aimed to determine the safety of T-cells with antiviral activity against a half dozen opportunistic viruses: adenovirus, BK virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Herpesvirus 6 and human parainfluenza-3 (HPIV3).
Eight patients received the hexa-valent, virus-specific T-cells after their stem cell transplants:
- Three patients were treated for active CMV, and the T-cells resolved their viremia.
- Two patients treated for active BK virus had complete symptom resolution, while one had hemorrhagic cystitis resolved but had fluctuating viral loads in their blood and urine.
- Of two patients treated prophylactically, one developed EBV viremia that was treated with rituximab.
Two additional patients received the T-cell treatments under expanded access for emergency treatment, one for disseminated adenoviremia and the other for HPIV3 pneumonia. While these critically ill patients had partial clinical improvement, they were being treated with steroids which may have dampened their antiviral responses.
“These preliminary results show that hexaviral-specific, virus-specific T-cells are safe and may be effective in preventing and treating multiple viral infections,” says Michael Keller, M.D., a pediatric immunologist at Children’s National and the lead study author. “Of note, enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot assays showed evidence of antiviral T-cell activity by three months post infusion in three of four patients who could be evaluated and expansion was detectable in two patients.”
In addition to Drs. Bollard and Keller, additional study authors include Katherine Harris M.D.; Patrick J. Hanley Ph.D., assistant research professor in the Center for Cancer and Immunology; Allistair Abraham, M.D., a blood and marrow transplantation specialist; Blachy J. Dávila Saldaña, M.D., Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation; Nan Zhang Ph.D.; Gelina Sani BS; Haili Lang MS; Richard Childs M.D.; and Richard Jones M.D.
Children’s National-NIAID 2019 symposium presentations
“Welcome and introduction”
H. Clifford Lane, M.D., director of NIAID’s Division of Clinical Research
“The hereditary disorders of PropionylCoA and Cobalamin Metabolism – past, present and future”
Charles P. Venditti, M.D., Ph.D., National Human Genome Research Institute Collaboration
“The road(s) to genetic precision therapeutics in pediatric neuromuscular disease: opportunities and challenges”
Carsten G. Bönnemann, M.D., National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
“Genomic diagnostics in immunologic diseases”
Helen Su, M.D., Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
“Update on outcomes of gene therapy clinical trials for X-SCID and X-CGD and plans for future trials”
Harry Malech, M.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
“Virus-specific T-cell therapies: broadening applicability for PID patients”
Catherine Bollard, M.D., Children’s National
“Using genetic testing to guide therapeutic decisions in Primary Immune Deficiency Disease”
Vanessa Bundy, M.D., Ph.D., Children’s National
Panel discussion moderated by Lisa M. Guay-Woodford, M.D.
Drs. Su, Malech, Bollard and Bundy
Morgan Similuk, S.C.M., NIAID
Maren Chamorro, Parent Advocate
“Underlying mechanisms of pediatric food allergy: focus on B cells
Adora Lin, M.D., Ph.D., Children’s National
“Pediatric Lyme outcomes study – interim update”
Roberta L. DeBiasi, M.D., MS, Children’s National
“Molecular drivers and opportunities in neuroimmune conditions of pediatric onset”
Elizabeth Wells, M.D., Children’s National
A poster presentation at the AHA Scientific Sessions shows successful implementation of virtual care delivered directly to patients and families via technology.
Health provider follow-ups delivered via computer or smartphone is a feasible alternative to in-person patient follow-ups for some pediatric cardiac conditions, according to the findings of a pilot study presented at the AHA Scientific Sessions this week.
“We’ve used telemedicine in pediatric cardiology for physician-to-physician communications for years at Children’s National, thanks to cardiologists like Dr. Craig Sable,” says Ashraf Harahsheh, M.D., cardiologist at Children’s National Hospital and senior author of the study. “But this is the first time we’ve really had the appropriate technology to speak directly to patients and their families in their homes instead of requiring an in-person visit.”
“We developed it [telemedicine] into a primary every day component of reading echocardiograms around the region and the globe,” says Craig Sable, M.D., associate chief of cardiology at Children’s National. “Telemedicine has enabled doctors at Children’s National to extend our reach to improve the care of children and avoid unnecessary transport, family travel and lost time from work.”
Participants in the virtual visit pilot study were previously established patients with hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, syncope, or who needed to discuss cardiac testing results. The retrospective sample included 18 families who met the criteria and were open to the virtual visit/telehealth follow up option between 2016 and 2019. Six months after their virtual visit, none of the participants had presented urgently with a cardiology issue. While many (39%) had additional visits with cardiology scheduled as in person, none of those subsequent in-person visits were a result of a deficiency related to the virtual visit.
“There are many more questions to be answered about how best to appropriately use technology advances that allow us to see and hear our patients without requiring them to travel a great distance,” adds Dr. Harahsheh. “But my team and I were encouraged by the results of our small study, and by the anecdotal positive reviews from families who participated. We’re looking forward to determining how we can successfully and cost-effectively implement these approaches as additional options for our families to get the care they need.”
The project was supported by the Research, Education, Advocacy, and Child Health Care (REACH) program within the Children’s National Hospital Pediatric Residency Program.
Direct-to-Consumer Cardiology Telemedicine: A Single Large Academic Pediatric Center Experience
Aaron A. Phillips, M.D., Craig A. Sable, M.D., FAAP; Christina Waggaman, M.S.; and Ashraf S. Harahsheh, M.D., F.A.C.C., F.A.A.P.
Poster Presentation by first author Aaron Phillips, M.D., a third-year resident at Children’s National
CH.APS.12 – Man vs. Machine: Tech in Kids
AHA Scientific Sessions 2019
November 17, 2019
12:30 -1:00 p.m.
A poster at the AHA Scientific Sessions suggests bisphenol-s (BPS) and bisphenol-f (BPF) may have less impact on heart function than bisphenol-a (BPA).
Some chemical alternatives to plastic bisphenol-a (BPA), which is still commonly used in medical settings such as operating rooms and intensive care units, may be less disruptive to heart electrical function than BPA, according to a pre-clinical study that explored how the structural analogues bisphenol-s (BPS) and bisphenol-f (BPF) interact with the chemical and electrical functions of heart cells.
The findings suggest that in terms of toxicity for heart function, these chemicals that are similar in structure to BPA may actually be safer for medically fragile heart cells, such as those in children with congenital heart disease. Previous research has found a high likelihood that BPA exposure may impact the heart’s electrical conductivity and disrupt heart rhythm, and patients are often exposed to the plastic via clinical equipment found in intensive care and in the operating room.
“There are still many questions that need to be answered about the safety and efficacy of using chemicals that look and act like BPA in medical settings, especially in terms of their potential contribution to endocrine disruption,” says Nikki Gillum Posnack, Ph.D., the poster’s senior author and a principal investigator in the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children’s National Hospital. “What we can say is that, in this initial pre-clinical investigation, it appears that these structural analogues have less of an impact on the electrical activity within the heart and therefore, may be less likely to contribute to dysrhythmias.”
Future studies will seek to quantify the risk that these alternative chemicals pose in vulnerable populations, including pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery patients. Since pediatric patients’ hearts are still growing and developing, the interactions may be different than what was seen in this pilot study.
Learn more the impacts of exposure to plastics such as bisphenol-A and plasticizers such as DEHP and MEHP that are commonly used in medical devices:
- Plasticizer interaction with the heart
- What are the health effects of plastics?
- Do plastic chemicals contribute to the sudden death of patients on dialysis?
- Examining BPA’s impact on developing heart cells
- Experimental model study links phthalates and cardiovascular health
Bisphenol-a Analogues May Be Safer Alternatives For Plastic Medical Products
Rafael Jaimes, Damon McCullough, Luther M Swift, Marissa Reilly, Morgan Burke, Jiansong Sheng, Javier Saiz, Nikki G Posnack
Poster Presentation by senior author Nikki G Posnack
CH.APS.01 – Translational Research in Congenital Heart Disease
AHA Scientific Sessions
November 16, 2019
1:30 p.m. – 2:00 p.m.
An upcoming clinical trial at Children’s National Hospital will harness cardiopulmonary bypass as a delivery mechanism for a novel intervention designed to stimulate brain growth and repair in children who undergo cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD).
The NIH has awarded Children’s National $2.5 million to test the hypothesis that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which have been shown to possess regenerative properties and the ability to modulate immune responses in a variety of diseases, collected from allogeneic bone marrow, may promote regeneration of damaged neuronal and glial cells in the early postnatal brain. If successful, the trial will determine the safety of the proposed treatment in humans and set the stage for a Phase 2 efficacy trial of what could potentially be the first treatment for delays in brain development that happen before birth as a consequence of congenital heart disease. The study is a single-center collaboration between three Children’s National physician-researchers: Richard Jonas, M.D., Catherine Bollard, M.B.Ch.B., M.D. and Nobuyuki Ishibashi, M.D.
Dr. Jonas, chief of cardiac surgery at Children’s National, will outline the trial and its aims on Monday, November 18, 2019, at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2019. Dr. Jonas was recently recognized by the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative for his lifelong research of how cardiac surgery impacts brain growth and development in children with CHD.
Read more about the study: Researchers receive $2.5M grant to optimize brain development in babies with CHD.
Regenerative Cell Therapy in Congenital Heart Disease – Protecting the Immature Brain
Presented by Richard Jonas, M.D.
AHA Scientific Sessions
Session CH.CVS.608 Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology Seminar: A Personalized Approach to Heart Disease in Children
9:50 a.m. to 10:05 a.m.
November 18, 2019
Adolescents with Type 2 diabetes experienced more hyperfiltration and earlier attenuation of their elevated urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) after gastric bypass surgery compared with adults. This finding contrasts with adolescents or adults who did not have diabetes prior to surgery, according to research presented Nov. 8, 2019, during the American Society of Nephrology’s Kidney Week 2019, the world’s largest gathering of kidney researchers.
“Findings from this work support a recent policy statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that advocates for increasing severely obese youths’ access to bariatric surgery,” says Marva Moxey-Mims, M.D., Chief of the Division of Nephrology at Children’s National Hospital and a study co-author. “We know that bariatric surgery improves markers of kidney health in severely obese adults and adolescents. This research helps to elucidate possible differences in kidney disease outcomes between children and adults post-surgery.”
According to the AAP, the prevalence of severe obesity in youth aged 12 to 19 has nearly doubled since 1999. Now, 4.5 million U.S. children are affected by severe obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥35 or ≥120% of the 95th percentile for age and sex.
In a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the surgeon staples the stomach to make it smaller, so people eat less. Then, they attach the lower part of the small intestine in a way that bypasses most of the stomach so the body takes in fewer calories.
The multi-institutional study team examined the health effects of such gastric bypass surgeries by comparing 161 adolescents with 396 adults enrolled in related studies. They compared their estimated glomerular filtration rates by serum creatinine and cystatin C. UACR was also compared at various time periods, up till five years after surgery.
Across the board, adolescents had higher UACR – a key marker for chronic kidney disease – than adults. However, for kids who had Type 2 diabetes prior to surgery, the prevalence of elevated UACR levels dip from 29% pre-surgery to 6% one year post-surgery. By contrast, adults who had diabetes prior to surgery and elevated UACR did not see a significant reduction in UACR until five years post-surgery.
While hyperfiltration prevalence was similar in study participants who did not have Type 2 diabetes, adolescents who had Type 2 diabetes prior to surgery had an increased prevalence of hyperfiltration for the duration of the study period.
Financial support for research described in this post was provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
ASN Kidney Week 2019 presentation
“Five-year kidney outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents compared with adults”
Friday, Nov. 8, 2019, 10 a.m. to noon (EST)
Petter Bjornstad, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Todd Jenkins, Edward Nehus and Mark Mitsnefes, all of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital; Marva M. Moxey-Mims, Children’s National Hospital; and Thomas H. Inge, Children’s Hospital Colorado.
Adolescents and teens experience biliary side effects after weight-loss surgery at about the same rate as adults. However, in younger patients, the symptoms are more likely to manifest as pancreatic inflammation, or acute pancreatitis, according to a new study published in the November issue of the journal Obesity.
“Biliary issues after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy occur with about the same frequency in pediatric patients as they do in adults,” says Evan Nadler, M.D., senior author on the study and director of the Bariatric Surgery Program at Children’s National Hospital. “We were surprised, however, to find that the small number of pediatric patients who do experience these complications seem to be more likely to have acute pancreatitis as a result. In adults, it’s more commonly the gall bladder that acts up as opposed to the pancreas.”
The study included 309 patients without previous or concurrent history of biliary disease or gallstones who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at Children’s National. Twenty-one patients, or 6.7% of the cohort, were diagnosed with biliary disease after surgery. Sixty-two percent of the pediatric patients with biliary disease also showed signs of acute pancreatitis, while only one-third of those with post-operative biliary disease presented with a gallstone blockage, or biliary colic. In adults, biliary colic is a primary symptom after surgery and far fewer adults experience acute pancreatitis.
“We definitely need more research, across a more diverse population, to understand the mechanisms behind this higher likelihood of acute pancreatitis in pediatric patients. More importantly, this study provides a proof point that weight-loss surgery doesn’t pose any higher risk of biliary complications for kids than it does for adults.”
Obesity’s editorial team selected the study as one of the Top 5 most innovative scientific research studies to prevent and treat obesity in 2019. It appears in a special section of the November 2019 print edition. Dr. Nadler will present his findings during the Obesity Journal Symposium on Nov. 5, 2019, as part of ObesityWeek®, the annual meeting of The Obesity Society.
“We’ve got one of the largest, if not the largest, weight-loss surgery programs dedicated solely to caring for children and adolescents,” adds Dr. Nadler. “That gives us a unique ability to collect and analyze a statistically significant sample of pediatric-specific patient data and really contribute a better understanding of how bariatric surgery specifically impacts younger patients.”
In late October 2019, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued guidance with the aim of providing severely obese teens easier access to bariatric surgery.
“Our study is just the latest contribution to a significant body of evidence that weight-loss surgery should be considered a viable treatment approach for children and teenagers with severe obesity, an idea that is now endorsed by the nation’s largest organization of pediatricians,” he points out.
The Obesity Journal Symposium occurs on Tuesday, Nov. 5, 2019, from 3:30 – 5:00 p.m. at the Mandalay Bay South Convention Center in Las Vegas, Nev. ObesityWeek® is a partnership of The Obesity Society and the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery.
Presentation: Pattern of Biliary Disease Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Adolescents
Session: Obesity Journal Symposium
Date/Time: 11/5/2019, 3:30 pm – 5:00 pm
Co-authors: Jun Tashiro , Arunachalam A. Thenappan, and Evan P. Nadler
Practitioners often read journal articles to help inform them about best clinical practices and policies, but some may not feel comfortable changing their clinical practice in the absence of published practice guidelines.
During this year’s American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition, Bernhard Wiedermann, M.D., MA, an infectious disease specialist at Children’s National Hospital, spoke to a room full of pediatric providers about how to stay current with medical literature, quickly analyze the material and decide whether to apply it to their practice. “This interactive session served to help primary care pediatric providers understand how to critically appraise what they are reading in medical literature,” says Dr. Wiedermann. “Practitioners need to be able to critically read journal articles to better decide when to apply new studies or recommendations to their clinical practice.”
Dr. Wiedermann’s presentation, entitled “Should that new article change your practice? The five easy pieces of literature appraisal for busy front-line providers,” covered:
- Techniques that providers should use when searching and browsing for literature
- How to review abstracts for relevant content
- How to determine the type of study (Where does it fit on the pyramid?)
- Whether or not your patient fits the study population
- How to explain findings to parents and patients
At the session, attendees gained the ability to develop a streamlined plan to keep current with the medical literature, apply simple strategies to select and appraise potentially worthwhile articles and discuss new management options with patients and families.
Children’s National Hospital participated in the second annual National Maternal & Infant Health Summit hosted by Mayor Muriel Bowser. The summit was built upon highlighting the District’s approaches to ensure the health of women, babies and families, while also seeking to increase public awareness and interest on these topics.
“I enjoyed the summit as a mother, parent, physician and presenter,” said Jessica Nash, M.D., a pediatrician at Children’s National. “I am excited about the future conversations about infant and maternal mortality and the strides needed in the District.”
Nash led a panel titled “Maternal and Infant Mental Health Landscape: Taking Steps to Improve Practice and Policy,” with Hope Rhodes, MD, MPH, Dominique Charlot-Swilley, Ph.D., Leandra Godoy, Ph.D. and Sarah Barclay Hoffman. The discussion identified infant and early childhood mental health resources available in the District, the current state of infant and early childhood mental health, future potential policy changes and the collaborative model that places HealthySteps DC within a child’s primary care medical home.
The day-long summit covered many topics including The Role of Food Policy, Access, and Nutrition in Supporting Positive Outcomes for Families, which focused on national and local efforts to improve healthy food access for families, breastfeeding and babies’ first foods. The discussion was a direct response to feedback on the absence of information about breastfeeding and nutrition during last year’s summit. Sahira Long, M.D., and Kofi Essel, M.D. served as panelists.
“According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), low rates of breastfeeding add $3 billion a year to medical costs for mothers and children in the U.S.” said Dr. Long. “Breastfeeding is more than an infant feeding choice, it’s a public health decision due to its impact on maternal and infant health.”
The Maternal and Infant Health Summit brings together residents of the District, elected officials, health and education officials and community-based partners to collaborate and explore strategies that will improve perinatal health and address racial disparities in birth outcomes.