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Hodgkin lymphoma cells

T-cell therapy alone or combined with nivolumab is safe and persistent in attacking Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells

Hodgkin lymphoma cells

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of cancer that attacks part of the immune system and expresses tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that are potential targets for cellular therapies.

It is safe for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) to receive a novel tumor-associated antigen specific T-cell therapy (TAA-T) either alone or combined with a checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab — a medication used to treat several types of cancer. The study, published in Blood Advances, further suggests that nivolumab aids in T-cell persistence and expansion to ultimately enhance anti-tumor activity. This offers a potential option for patients who do not have a durable remission with checkpoint inhibitors alone or are at a high risk of relapse after a transplant.

“The fact that this combination therapy is so safe was very encouraging for the treatment of patients with lymphomas,” said Catherine Bollard, M.D., M.B.Ch.B., director of the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research at Children’s National Hospital. “In addition, this data allows us to consider this combination immunotherapy for other patients, including those with solid tumors.”

HL is a type of cancer that attacks part of the immune system and expresses tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that are potential targets for cellular therapies. While it may affect children and adults, it is most common in those who are between 20 and 40 years old. The survival rate for this condition has improved due to scientific advances.

A new approach in cancer therapy is the use of “checkpoint inhibitors,” which are a class of drugs that block some of the inhibitory pathways of the immune system to unleash a powerful tumor killing immune response. Similarly, T-cell therapies have also shown to enhance anti-tumor immune response. Therefore, combining these novel immune therapies is an attractive and targeted alternative to conventional untargeted therapies – such as chemotherapy and radiation – which not only kill the tumor cells but also can kill healthy cells and tissues.

“In five to 10 years we can get rid of chemotherapy and radiation therapy and have an immunotherapy focused treatment for this disease,” said Dr. Bollard.

To determine the safety of infusing TAA-T with and without checkpoint inhibitors, eight patients were infused with TAA-specific T-cell products manufactured from their own blood. Two other patients received TAA-T generated from matched healthy donors as adjuvant therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. According to Dave et al., the TAA-T infusions were safe and patients who received TAA-T as adjuvant therapy after transplant remained in continued remission for over two years.

Of the eight patients with active disease, one patient had a complete response, and seven had stable disease at three months, three of whom remained with stable disease during the first year.

“Treating Hodgkin’s lymphoma with cellular therapy has not yet achieved the same success that we have seen for other lymphoma subtypes,” said Keri Toner, M.D., attending physician at Children’s National. “This study brings us closer to overcoming some of the current barriers by developing methods to improve the persistence and function of the tumor-specific T-cells.”

This study builds upon the researchers’ latest findings in another study, which demonstrated that TAA-T manufactured from patients were safe and associated with prolonged time to progression in solid tumors.

“The addition of a checkpoint inhibitor like Nivolumab to the TAA-T treatment is a powerful next step, but previously, the safety of this combination was unknown,” said Patrick Hanley, Ph.D., chief and director of the Cellular Therapy Program at Children’s National, leader of the GMP laboratory and co-author of the study. “Now that we have demonstrated a safety profile, the next step will be to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in a larger subset of patients.”

inside a GMP lab

Cell therapy manufacturing process ramps up to meet increased demand for T-cell products

inside a GMP lab

The new laboratory space includes floor-to-ceiling windows and brand new, state-of-the-art GMP lab suites.

Since Children’s National Hospital began its pediatric cellular therapy program in 2013, it has received more than $5 million in annual funding, treated over 200 patients, manufactured more than 400 cell-based products and supported over 25 clinical trials.

One of the in-house programs supporting this work is the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) facility. Patrick Hanley, Ph.D., chief and director of the cellular therapy program at Children’s National and leader of the GMP laboratory, explained that the first patient received a dose of less than 10 million cells in May 2014. Fast forward to now, the lab uses liters of media, automated bioreactors and multiple staff, making upwards of 12 billion cells per run — a growing production scale that enables many different options. Using cells as an off-the-shelf technology is one of those.

The cell therapy program exports these off-the-shelf products beyond Children’s National to make them available for kids across the country. Catherine Bollard, M.D., MBChB., director of the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research at Children’s National, and Michael Keller, M.D., director of the Translational Research Laboratory in the Program for Cell Enhancement and Technologies for Immunotherapy (CETI) at Children’s National, each led clinical trials with hospitals across the United States, including the first-ever cellular therapy clinical trial run through the Children’s Oncology Group.

To meet the high demand for cell therapy trials at Children’s National, the GMP lab moved to a larger space, doubling the team’s capacity to produce alternative treatment options for patients and facilitate the lab’s ability to support clinical divisions throughout the hospital.

The GMP lab is exploring how to make cell products more consistent — regardless of patient-to-patient variability. They are also hoping to delineate the characteristics that ensure quality cell products, educate other facilities, enhance the overall knowledge of how to safely manufacture these products and make these technologies more available and affordable to the patients who need them.

Among Hanley’s many goals for the GMP lab, one is to improve the transition from when an investigator discovers a product in the translational research lab to when it is manufactured for patients.

“To improve this transition, we have started a process development team that will learn the process alongside the research team, replicate it, and then train the staff who manufacture the product for patients,” said Hanley. “In addition to providing a better training opportunity for the manufacturing staff, it allows us to work with the investigators earlier on to identify changes that will need to be made to translate the products to patients, ultimately resulting in safer, more potent immunotherapy products.”

While cell therapy has seen increased interest in the last 10 years, there are still some challenges in the field, given that it is not as mature as other scientific areas. The lack of trained staff, scalability of cell and gene therapy, the variability between patients and products, delayed FDA approvals and rejection of licensing applications for cell therapy products — are barriers that scientists and companies often face.

“Each of us has a unique immune system, and that means that if we try and make a product from it, it will not behave like any other, so the number of cells, the potency the alloreactivity — it is all different,” said Hanley. “T-cells are a living drug that expand in the body at different rates, are composed of different types of T-cells, and release different cytokines and in different amounts.”

This all ties back to the process development and basic research. The better researchers can characterize the products under development, the more they will know about how the products work and the easier it will be to tie these products to patient outcomes.

Meet some of the Children’s National multidisciplinary experts who join forces to lead the cell therapy space.

Jay Tanna, M.S., quality assurance manager, has extensive experience with drug development at Children’s National as well as Sloan Kettering, another premier cell therapy institution. He has a Masters in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and a Regulatory Affairs Certification (RAC) in U.S. FDA drugs and biologics regulations from the Regulatory Affairs Professional Society (RAPS).

Kathryn Bushnell, M.T. (ASCP), the cell therapy lab manager, oversees Stem Cell Processing. She has 20 years of experience with hematopoietic progenitor cells and cellular therapy, starting her career as a medical technologist at MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Nan Zhang, Ph.D., assistant director of manufacturing at Children’s National, has worked at Wake Forest and the National Institutes of Health developing various cellular therapies. Zhang chaired the cell processing session at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology in 2020.

Abeer Shibli, M.T., is a specialist in the cellular therapy laboratory with extensive experience in the processing of cellular therapy products. She has over 10 years of experience as a medical technologist, is specialized in blood banking and transfusion medicine and is one of the senior technologists in the lab.

Chase McCann, M.S.P.H., Ph.D., is the cell therapy lab lead for manufacturing at Children’s National Hospital. He recently completed his Ph.D. training in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York. Much of his graduate research focused on developing and enhancing cellular therapies for HIV while identifying common mechanisms of escape, shared by both HIV and various cancers, which limit the efficacy of current cell therapies. Previously, McCann worked as the laboratory coordinator for the HIV Prevention Trials Network, and now oversees the manufacturing of many cell therapies supporting the many clinical trials currently underway at Children’s National.

Anushree Datar, M.S., the cell therapy lab lead for immune testing and characterization, oversees the release testing of products manufactured in the GMP for safety and function before they can be infused in patients. She also leads a part of the research team investigating the improvement in immune function after cell infusion.

Dr. Bollard is also the director of the Program for Cell Enhancement and Technologies for Immunotherapy and president of the Foundation for the Accreditation for Cellular Therapy (FACT). Additionally, in 2019, she became a member of the Frederick National Laboratory Advisory Committee (FNLAC) for the NIH and an ad hoc member of the Pediatric Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) for the FDA. She has been an associate editor for the journal Blood since 2014 and in 2020 was appointed editor-in-chief of Blood Advances (starting Fall 2021). Dr. Bollard has 21 years of cell therapy experience as a physician, sponsor and principal investigator.

Dr. Hanley serves as the commissioning editor of the peer-reviewed journal Cytotherapy, as the vice-president-elect (North America) of the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and board of directors member at FACT, which provides him visibility into various cell and gene therapies, manufacturing approaches, and other intangibles that make Children’s National facility one of the leaders in the field.

To find the full research program list and their experts, click here.

GMP group photo

Lab members celebrate the expansion of the GMP Laboratory.

Wilm's Tumor

PRAME-specific T cell product may facilitate rapid treatment in cancer settings

Wilms Tumor

PRAME is a cancer-testis antigen that plays a role in cancer cell proliferation and survival and is overexpressed in many human malignancies, including Wilms tumor. “Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma)” by euthman is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Generated preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME)-specific T cells from healthy donors can kill PRAME-expressing tumor cells in vitro, researchers at Children’s National Hospital found. Several novel epitopes, which are antigens that are recognized by the immune system, were also identified for enhanced matching, making this a potential therapeutic option for a broader patient group, according to a study published in Cytotherapy.

PRAME is a cancer-testis antigen that plays a role in cancer cell proliferation and survival and is overexpressed in many human malignancies, including melanoma, leukemia, sarcoma, renal cell cancer and Wilms tumor. PRAME also acts as a foreign substance in the body that can trigger the immune system by activating T cells, making it a good target for anticancer immunotherapy — especially for immunocompromised patients.

“The development of an effective off-the-shelf adoptive T-cell therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory cancers expressing PRAME antigen requires the identification of epitopes essential to the adaptive immune response, which are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II, and are then recognized by the manufactured PRAME-specific T cell product,” said Amy Hont, M.D., oncologist for the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research at Children’s National Hospital. “We, therefore, set out to extend the repertoire of HLA-restricted PRAME peptide epitopes beyond the few already characterized and demonstrate the cytotoxic activity of PRAME-specific T cells to tumor cells known to express PRAME.”

Immunotherapy options for pediatric patients with high-risk malignancies, especially solid tumors, are few. Tumor-associated antigen-specific T cells (TAA-T) offer a therapeutic option for these patients, and Children’s National is building upon the success of the ongoing clinical trials to optimize this therapy and improve the treatment of our patients.

“These findings will also benefit patients because it better informs the pre-clinical studies of third party TAA-T to treat high-risk malignancies, so that we can move more quickly and safely to clinical trials,” said Dr. Hont.

Stanojevic et al. describes that the T-cell products killed partially HLA-matched tumors, and that this enhanced disintegration of tumor cells compared with non-specific T cells suggests an anti-tumor potential for a clinical trial evaluation to determine the safety and efficacy. Further research about the PRAME-specific T cells will help inform a treatment alternative for patients with solid tumors in the future.

The researchers generated a PRAME-specific T cell bank from healthy donor cells and demonstrated anti-tumor cytolytic activity against tumor lines partially HLA-matched to the T cells and known to express PRAME. By using epitope mapping, they identified several novel epitopes restricted to MHC class I or MHC class II to further inform HLA matching.

“Defining PRAME-specific T cells beyond HLA epitopes could be useful when developing T-cell therapies for worldwide application,” Stanojevic et al. write. “Moreover, creating off-the-shelf products has many potential advantages since such products are readily available for the treatment of patients with aggressive disease or patients for whom an autologous product cannot be manufactured.”

Additional authors from Children’s National are Maja Stanojevic, M.D., Ashley Geiger, M.S., Samuel O’Brien, Robert Ulrey, M.S., Melanie Grant, Ph.D., Anushree Datar, M.S., Ping-Hsien Lee, Ph.D., Haili Lang, M.D., Conrad R.Y. Cruz, M.D., Ph.D.,  Patrick J. Hanley, Ph.D., A. John Barrett, M.D, Michael D. Keller, M.D., and Catherine M. Bollard, M.D., M.B.Ch.B.

illustration of brain with stem cells

Innovative phase 1 trial to protect brains of infants with CHD during and after surgery

A novel phase 1 trial looking at how best to optimize brain development of babies with congenital heart disease (CHD) is currently underway at Children’s National Hospital.

Children with CHD sometimes demonstrate delay in the development of cognitive and motor skills. This can be a result of multiple factors including altered prenatal oxygen delivery, brain blood flow and genetic factors associated with surgery including exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass, also known as the heart lung machine.

This phase 1 trial is the first to deliver mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow manufactured in a lab (BM-MSC) into infants already undergoing cardiac surgery via cardiopulmonary bypass. The hypothesis is that by directly infusing the MSCs into the blood flow to the brain, more MSCs quickly and efficiently reach the subventricular zone and other areas of the brain that are prone to inflammation. The trial is open to eligible patients ages newborn to six months of age.


Learn more in this overview video.

The trial is part of a $2.5 million, three-year grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) led by Richard Jonas, M.D.Catherine Bollard, M.B.Ch.B., M.D., and Nobuyuki Ishibashi, M.D.. The project involves collaboration between the Prenatal Cardiology program of Children’s National Heart Institute, the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, the Center for Neuroscience Research and the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation.

“NIH supported studies in our laboratory have shown that MSC therapy may be extremely helpful in improving brain development in animal models after cardiac surgery,” says Dr. Ishibashi. “MSC infusion can help reduce inflammation including prolonged microglia activation that can occur during surgery that involves the heart lung machine.”

Staff from the Cellular Therapy Laboratory, led by director Patrick Hanley, Ph.D., manufactured the BM-MSC at the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, led by Dr. Bollard.

The phase 1 safety study will set the stage for a phase 2 effectiveness trial of this highly innovative MSC treatment aimed at reducing brain damage, minimizing neurodevelopmental disabilities and improving the postoperative course in children with CHD. The resulting improvement in developmental outcome and lessened behavioral impairment will be of enormous benefit to individuals with CHD.

For more information about this new treatment, contact the clinical research team: Gil Wernovsky, M.D., Shriprasad Deshpande, M.D., Maria Fortiz.

t-cells attacking cancer cell

Children’s National spin-out cell therapy company receives funding

t-cells attacking cancer cell

Ongoing efforts by researchers at Children’s National Hospital to improve T-cell therapies have led to a spin-out company MANA Therapeutics which has announced a $35 million Series A financing. MANA is a clinical stage company creating nonengineered, allogeneic and off-the-shelf cell therapies that target multiple cancer antigens. Its EDIFY™ platform aims to educate T-cells that target multiple target multiple cell surface and intracellular tumor-associated antigens across a broad range of liquid and solid tumors, with an initial focus on relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

MANA was founded in 2017, and was based on the research and human proof-of-concept clinical trials conducted by Catherine Bollard, M.D., M.B.Ch.B., Conrad Russell Y. Cruz, M.D., Ph.D., Patrick Hanley, Ph.D. and other investigators at Children’s National along with their colleagues at Johns Hopkins Medical Center. The trials demonstrated safety and anti-tumor activity of MANA’s approach, and Children’s National provided an exclusive license to MANA to further develop this promising technology into commercial products in the field of immuno-oncology.

MANA Therapeutics recruited an experienced leadership team from industry including Martin B. Silverstein, M.D., president and CEO, who is a former senior executive at Gilead Sciences when they acquired Kite Pharma, one of the leading cell therapy companies, as well as Madhusudan V. Peshwa, Ph.D., chief technology officer, who joined from GE Health Care where he had been Chief Technology Officer and Global Head of R&D for Cell and Gene Therapies.

“MANA is building upon the strong foundational science established at Children’s National with a unique approach that promises to produce off-the-shelf allogeneic therapies that do not compromise on safety or efficacy,” said Marc Cohen, co-founder and executive chairman of MANA Therapeutics. “I look forward to continuing to support the MANA team as they advance their internal pipeline for the treatment of AML and select solid tumors, and expand the potential of EDIFY through strategic partnerships focused on new target antigens and cancer types.”

An international leader in the immunotherapy field, Dr. Bollard was an early believer in the potential of immune cell therapies to dramatically improve the treatment of patients with cancer and patients with life-threatening viral infections. Recently, she and her team at the Children’s National Center for Cancer and Immunology Research published findings in Blood showing T-cells taken from the blood of people who recovered from a COVID-19 infection can be successfully multiplied in the lab and maintain the ability to effectively target proteins that are key to the virus’s function.

“Over the past decade we have seen tremendous progress in cancer research and treatment and are beginning to unlock the potential of cell therapy for a variety of tumor types,” said Dr. Bollard. “The human proof-of-concept trials conducted by my team and colleagues showed potential for a nonengineered approach to educating T-cells to attack multiple tumor antigens, which MANA is expanding even further through refinement of the manufacturing process for an allogeneic product and application to a broader set of antigens in a variety of clinical indications and settings.”

Read more about how the Series A funding will enable rapid progress with MANA’s programs.

baby cardioilogy patient

Researchers receive $2.5M grant to optimize brain development in babies with CHD

baby cardioilogy patient

Children’s National Health System researchers Richard Jonas, M.D., Catherine Bollard, M.B.Ch.B., M.D., and Nobuyuki Ishibashi, M.D., have been awarded a $2.5 million, three-year grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to conduct a single-center clinical trial at Children’s National. The study will involve collaboration between the Children’s National Heart Institute, the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, the Center for Neuroscience Research and the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation.

The goal of the study will be to optimize brain development in babies with congenital heart disease (CHD) who sometimes demonstrate delay in the development of cognitive and motor skills. This can be a result of multiple factors including altered prenatal oxygen delivery, brain blood flow and genetic factors associated with surgery including exposure to the heart lung machine.

The award will be used to complete three specific aims of a Phase 1 safety study as described in the NIH grant:

  • Aim 1: To determine the safety and feasibility of delivering allogeneic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) during heart surgery in young infants less than 3 months of age using the heart lung machine. The optimal safe dose will be determined.
  • Aim 2: To determine the impact of MSC infusion on brain structure using advanced neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcomes.
  • Aim 3: To determine differences in postoperative inflammatory and patho-physiological variables after MSC delivery in the infant with CHD.

“NIH supported studies in our laboratory have shown that MSC therapy may be extremely helpful in improving brain development in animal models after cardiac surgery,” says Dr. Ishibashi. “MSC infusion can help reduce inflammation including prolonged microglia activation that can occur during surgery that involves the heart lung machine.”

In addition the researchers’ studies have demonstrated that cell-based intervention can promote white matter regeneration through progenitor cells, restoring the neurogenic potential of the brain’s own stem cells that are highly important in early brain development.

The Phase 1 clinical trial is being implemented in two stages beginning with planning, regulatory documentation, training and product development. During the execution phase, the trial will focus on patient enrollment. Staff from the Cellular Therapy Laboratory, led by director Patrick Hanley, Ph.D., manufactured the BM-MSC at the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, led by Dr. Bollard. The Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Laboratory, led by Catherine Limperopoulos, Ph.D., will perform MR imaging.

The phase 1 safety study will set the stage for a phase 2 effectiveness trial of this highly innovative MSC treatment aimed at reducing brain damage, minimizing neurodevelopmental disabilities and improving the postoperative course in children with CHD. The resulting improvement in developmental outcome and lessened behavioral impairment will be of enormous benefit to individuals with CHD.

American Society of Hematology logo

Leading blood disorder experts from Children’s National convene in Atlanta for 59th American Society of Hematology annual meeting

In early December 2017, more than 25,000 attendees from around the world, including several experts from Children’s National Health System, convened in Atlanta for the American Society of Hematology’s annual meeting and exposition, the world’s premiere hematology event. For four days, physicians, nurses and other healthcare professionals attended sessions, listened to speakers and collaborated with each other, focusing on enhancing care and treatment options for patients with blood disorders and complications, including leukemia, sickle cell disease and transplants.

As nationally recognized leaders in the field, the Children’s National team led educational sessions and gave keynote speeches highlighting groundbreaking work underway at the hospital, which sparked engaging and productive conversations among attendees. Highlights from the team include:

  • Catherine Bollard, M.D., M.B.Ch.B., Director of the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, educating global experts on cellular immunotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Kirsten Williams, M.D., bone and marrow transplant specialist, presenting novel work utilizing TAA-specific T cells for hematologic malignancies with Dr. Bollard, the sponsor of this first-in-man immunotherapy; moderating sessions on immunotherapy and late complications and survivorship after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • Allistair Abraham, M.D., blood and marrow transplantation specialist, moderating a session on hemoglobinopathies.
  • David Jacobsohn, M.D., ScM, Division Chief of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, moderating a session on allogeneic transplantation results.
  • Naomi Luban, M.D., hematologist and laboratory medicine specialist, introducing a plenary speaker on the application of CRISPR/Cas 9 technology for development of diagnostic reagents for diagnosis of alloimmunization from stem cells.

Additional presentations from the Children’s National team included an oral abstract on the hospital’s work to improve hydroxyurea treatment for sickle cell disease by pediatric resident Sarah Kappa, M.D., who also received an ASH Abstract Achievement Award; another key session on hemoglobinopathies moderated by Andrew Campbell, M.D., director of the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Disease Program; an abstract on the clinical use of CMV- specific T-cells derived from CMV-native donors, presented by Patrick Hanley, Ph.D.; a leukemia study presented by Anne Angiolillo, M.D., oncologist; and a presentation about pain measurement tools in sickle cell disease by Deepika Darbari, M.D., hematologist.

Combined FACT accreditation related to cellular immunotherapy spotlights Children’s ongoing commitment to revolutionary cancer therapies

DNA strand and Cancer Cell

As new immunotherapy treatments are starting to hit the market, care-delivery must adapt so that facilities are prepared to deliver these novel treatments to patients. Children’s National is proud to announce that it became the first pediatric medical institution in the United States to receive accreditations for both immune effector cells and more than minimal manipulation from the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT). Considered the threshold for excellence in cellular therapy, FACT establishes standards for high-quality medical and laboratory practice in the field.

“We are proud to receive these critically important seals of approval,” said David Jacobsohn, M.D., ScM, division chief of the Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation at Children’s National. “Our patients are our highest priority and having these accreditations only further demonstrates our commitment to providing the most innovative care.”

The first new designation, FACT Accreditation for Immune Effector Cells, certifies that Children’s National is able to safely administer cutting-edge cellular therapies and monitor and report patient outcomes. The designation applies to CAR-T cells and therapeutic vaccines, among other therapies.

“We continuously set high standards for cellular therapy within the walls of Children’s National, and we are thrilled to be recognized for our leadership in this field,” said Catherine Bollard, M.D., M.B.Ch.B., director of the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research within the Children’s Research Institute. “Cell therapies represent the next generation of cancer treatment, and we are excited to continue our journey in revolutionizing patient care.”

Children’s National also received FACT Accreditation for More than Minimal Manipulation,

a designation that is unique to only a few pediatric institutions in the United States. This accreditation certifies that Children’s National is prepared to safely manufacture its own cellular therapies.

“Being accredited for More than Minimal Manipulation is a tremendous achievement for us as a stand-alone pediatric institution; it exemplifies our ability to manufacture our own innovative cellular therapy products for patients in need,” said Patrick Hanley, Ph.D., director of the Cellular Therapy Laboratory where the cells are manufactured for clinical use. “These two accreditations allow Children’s National to serve as a complex immunotherapy center that is capable of providing immunotherapies and gene therapies from external groups and companies.”

Advances in T-cell immunotherapy at ISCT

Healthy Human T Cell

T-cell immunotherapy, which has the potential to deliver safer, more effective treatments for cancer and life-threatening infections, is considered one of the most promising cell therapies today. Each year, medical experts from around the world – including leaders in the field at Children’s National Health System – gather at the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) Conference to move the needle on cell therapy through several days of innovation, collaboration and presentations.

Dr. Catherine Bollard, Children’s National chief of allergy and immunology and current president of ISCT, kicked off the week with a presentation on how specific approaches and strategies have contributed to the success of T-cell immunotherapy, a ground-breaking therapy in this fast-moving field.

Later in the week, Dr. Kirsten Williams, a blood and marrow transplant specialist, presented encouraging new findings, demonstrating that T-cell therapy could be an effective treatment for leukemia and lymphoma patients who relapse after undergoing a bone marrow transplant. Results from her phase 1 study showed that four out of nine patients achieved complete remission. Other medical options for the patients involved – those who relapsed between 2 and 12 months post-transplant – are very limited. Looking to the future, this developing therapy, while still in early stages, could be a promising solution.

Other highlights include:

  • Both Allistair Abraham, blood and marrow transplantation specialist, and Dr. Michael Keller, immunologist, presented oral abstracts, the former titled “Successful Engraftment but High Viral Reactivation After Reduced Intensity Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease” and the latter “Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy Restores Targeted Antiviral Immunity in Immunodeficient Patients.
  • Patrick Hanley engaged attendees with his talk, “Challenges of Incorporating T-Cell Potency Assays in Early Phase Clinical Trials,” and his poster presentation “Cost Effectiveness of Manufacturing Antigen-Specific T-Cells in an Academic GMP Facility.” He also co-chaired a session titled “Early Stage Professionals Session 1 – Advanced Strategic Innovations for Cell and Gene Therapies.”
  • To round out this impressive group, Shabnum Piyush Patel gave a talk on genetically modifying HIV-specific T-cells to enhance their anti-viral capacity; the team plans to use these HIV-specific T-cells post-transplant in HIV-positive patients with hematologic malignancies to control their viral rebound.

This exciting team is leading the way in immunology and immunotherapy, as evidenced by the work they shared at the ISCT conference and their ongoing commitment to improving treatments and outcomes for patients at Children’s National and across the country. To learn more about the team, visit the Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders site.

Patrick Hanley receives prestigious Manasevit Research Scholar Grant

Patrick Hanley, Ph.D

Patrick Hanley, Ph.D., will receive the award at the ASBMT national meeting in late February 2017.

The American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the National Marrow Donor Program have awarded the Amy Strelzer Manasevit Research Scholar grant award to Children’s National researcher Patrick J. Hanley.

Hanley, Ph.D., Laboratory Facility Director, Cellular Therapy and Stem Cell Processing and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at The George Washington University, will receive the award at ASBMT national meeting in late February 2017. It is the first time a Children’s National staff member has been awarded this grant, which is for $240,000 over three years.

The Amy research program is one of the largest and most coveted research grants in the field of marrow and cord blood transplantation, according to the program’s website.

“The program develops the next generation of physician-scientists by supporting and encouraging the discovery of new ways to treat and prevent post-transplant complications,” the program reports.

Hanley plans to use the grant to treat patients on their upcoming clinical trial, “CHEERS”, which is for patients receiving a cord blood transplant. These patients will receive immune cells that were expanded from cord blood, called T cells, that have been trained in the lab to target viruses – a major complication after transplant.

“This grant enables us to evaluate whether cord blood T cells that recognize viruses like CMV and now BK virus can offer protection to patients who need it most,” Hanley says.

Learn more about the grant program.

New research shows success training t-cells to recognize and fight life-threatening viruses

Children's is the only U.S. pediatric hospital that manufactures specialized T-cells from native cord blood

Patients with leukemia, lymphoma, other cancers, and genetic disorders who receive stem cell or cord blood transplants face the post-transplant risk of developing a life-threatening infection with adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

The study reports the results of a head-to-head comparison of two powerful immunotherapeutic strategies to thwart such viral infections. Both therapeutic approaches leverage the power of multivirus-specific, donor-derived T-cells (mCTL), which are highly skilled at recognizing foreign invaders and, in the case of the peripheral blood cells, have long memories of past battles.

The award-winning paper, “Multivirus-Specific T Cells From Both Cord Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Donors” was presented during the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) 2016 Annual Meeting, held from May 25 through May 28, in Singapore. The abstract’s lead author, Patrick J. Hanley, PhD, Laboratory Facility Director of Children’s Cellular Therapy and Stem Cell Processing facility, was recognized by ISCT with a Young Investigator award during the meeting.

Nine research scientists and clinicians affiliated with Children’s National Health System are co-authors of a paper, including Michael D. Keller, MD, the lead clinical investigator of the peripheral blood T-cell study, and Catherine M. Bollard, MBChB, MD, the study’s sponsor and Director of Children’s National Program for Cell Enhancement and Technologies for Immunotherapy.

After certain treatments, some cancer patients’ bodies are stripped of their natural ability to fight infection. The stem cell or the cord blood transplant restores the body’s ability to produce a full complement of blood cells, including infection-fighting white blood cells. As a further boost to these patients, the T-cells are trained to spot and neutralize all three potentially lethal viruses (CMV, EBV, and adenovirus) simultaneously. The personalized cell therapy can be accomplished in a single infusion and administered in the outpatient setting.

In the phase I perspective study, the personalized T-cells were grown from peripheral blood (PB) of adult donors who were seropositive for CMV, a relative of the virus that causes chickenpox, and were also coaxed to grow from naïve cord blood (CB). These naïve cells need additional training since they have never been to battle.

Since the mid-1990s, PB has been shown to be effective for such use. Hanley says that fewer than one dozen facilities in the United States perform PB antiviral T-cell infusions. Of that selective group, Children’s National is the only U.S. location that also grows the specialized T-cells from naïve CB, a procedure that takes a bit longer to accomplish but can help patients whose blood type is in short supply.

Thirteen patients were infused with PB mCTL, and 12 patients were infused with the T-cells derived from cord blood. Patients received their transfusions from 35 to 384 days after their stem cell or cord blood transplant. Within four weeks, the research team saw up to a 160-fold increase in virus-specific T-cells, a development that coincided with patients’ response to therapy. “The overall … response rate in both groups was 81 percent,” writes Hanley and colleagues.

Eight patients had a complete response. Five had a partial response. Nine remain free of infection/reactivation. What’s more, the patients’ restored immunity was durable with at least one patient remaining free of infection two years after treatment – without the need for pharmaceuticals administered in a hospital setting, which exacts a higher overall cost to the healthcare system.

“This study demonstrates that mCTL derived from the PB of seropositive donors, as well as the CB of virus naïve donors, expand in vivo and are active against multiple viruses. Furthermore, by restoring immunity to multiple viruses simultaneously, the need for continued prophylaxis with pharmacotherapy is eliminated, thus, improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of protecting SCT and CBT recipients from these potentially lethal viruses,” Hanley and co-authors conclude.

Related Resources: Research at a Glance

Training t-cells, essential players in the immune system, to fight a trio of viruses

Children's is the only U.S. pediatric hospital that manufactures specialized T-cells from native cord blood

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What’s Known
Following treatment, patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and other cancers may receive a transplant in order to restore their body’s natural ability to fight infection and, sometimes, such transplants are a component of leukemia treatment. (Leukemia is the second most common blood cancer, after lymphoma, and its incidence rate has increased by 0.2 percent annually from 2002 to 2011.) A stem cell or cord blood transplant restores the body’s ability to produce infection-fighting white blood cells. After such transplants, however, patients can face heightened risk of developing a life-threatening infection with such viruses as adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, or Epstein-Barr virus.

What’s New
A head-to-head comparison of two strategies to thwart such viral infections shows that both approaches leverage the power of multivirus-specific, donor-derived T-cells (mCTL), which are highly skilled at recognizing foreign invaders. The research team, made up of nine scientists and clinicians affiliated with Children’s National Health System, grew personalized T-cells from peripheral blood (PB) of adult donors who were seropositive for CMV and also coaxed T-cells to grow from naïve cord blood (CB). PB-derived cells have long memories of past battles; naïve CB-derived cells need additional training to acquire such skills. From 35 to 384 days after their stem cell or cord blood transplant, 13 patients were infused with PB mCTL and 12 patients were infused with CB mCTL. Within four weeks, patients experienced up to a 160-fold increase in virus-specific T-cells, which coincided with their response to therapy. Overall response rate was 81 percent.

Questions for Future Research
Q: Could T-cells be personalized to attack other viruses that infect patients post-transplant, such as human parainfluenza virus and BK polyomavirus, providing the potential to target five viruses in a single infusion?
Q: Could the proteins that are used to train T-cells to attack certain viruses also be used to create a personalized approach to tumor suppression?

Source: “A Phase 1 Perspective: Multivirus-Specific T Cells From Both Cord Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Donors.” Hanley, P., M. D. Keller, M. Martin Manso, C. Martinez, K. Leung, C.R. Cruz, C. Barese, S. McCormack, M. Luo, R.A. Krance, D. Jacobsohn, C. Rooney, H. Heslop, E.J. Shpall, and C. Bollard. Presented during the International Society for Cellular Therapy 2016 Annual Meeting, Singapore. May 26, 2016.