Drs. Katie Donnelly, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Rana Hamdy, Shayna Coburn and Brynn Marks

Five Children’s National Hospital faculty named to Society for Pediatric Research

Drs. Katie Donnelly, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Rana Hamdy, Shayna Coburn and Brynn Marks

The Society for Pediatric Research (SPR) announced five new members from Children’s National Hospital: Drs. Rana Hamdy, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Brynn Marks, Shayna Coburn and Katie Donnelly.

The Society for Pediatric Research (SPR) announced five new members from Children’s National Hospital. Established in 1929, SPR’s mission is to create a multi-disciplinary network of diverse researchers to improve child health.

Membership in SPR is a recognized honor in academic pediatrics. It requires nomination by academic peers and leaders as well as recognition of one’s role as an independent, productive child health researcher.

“I am so proud of our faculty and all that they have accomplished. I am thrilled that they have been recognized for their achievements,” said Beth A. Tarini, M.D., M.S., SPR president and associate director for the Center for Translational Research at Children’s National Hospital.

SPR 2021 active new members from Children’s National are:

    • Katie Donnelly, M.D., M.P.H., attending physician in the Emergency Department at Children’s National Hospital. She is the medical director for Safe Kids DC, an organization dedicated to preventing accidental injuries in children in Washington DC. Her personal research interest is in preventing firearm injuries in children and she is a member of Safer through Advocacy, Firearm Education and Research (SAFER), a multidisciplinary team dedicated to firearm injury prevention at Children’s National. She is also the medical director of the newly founded hospital-based violence intervention program at Children’s National and an associate professor of pediatrics and emergency medicine at The George Washington University.“To be recognized by my peers as a researcher with a significant contribution to our field is very validating. It also opens a world of potential collaborations with excellent scientists, which is very exciting!” said Dr. Donnelly. “I am grateful for the immense support offered to me by the Division of Emergency Medicine to complete the research I am passionate about, especially my mentor Monika Goyal.”
    • Panagiotis Kratimenos, M.D., Ph.D., newborn intensivist and neuroscientist at Children’s National. He studies mechanisms of brain injury in the neonate, intending to prevent its sequelae later in life. Dr. Kratimenos’ interest lies in identifying therapies to prevent or improve neurodevelopmental disabilities of sick newborns caused by prematurity and perinatal insults.“Being a member of SPR is a deep honor for me. SPR has always been a ‘mentorship home’ for me since I was a trainee and a member of the SPR junior section,” said Dr. Kratimenos. “A membership in the SPR allows us to access a very diverse, outstanding team of pediatric academicians and researchers who support the development of physician-scientists, honors excellence through prestigious grants and awards, and advocates for children at any level either locally, nationally, or internationally.”
    • Rana Hamdy, M.D., M.P.H., M.S.C.E., pediatric infectious diseases physician at Children’s National and Director of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program. She is an assistant professor of pediatrics at George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Her area of expertise focuses on the prevention and treatment of antimicrobial resistant infections and the promotion of good antimicrobial stewardship in inpatient and outpatient settings.“It’s an honor to be joining the Society for Pediatric Research and becoming part of this distinguished multidisciplinary network of pediatric researchers,” said Dr. Hamdy. “I look forward to the opportunity to meet and work with SPR members, make connections for future collaborations, as well as encourage trainees to pursue pediatric research through the opportunities that SPR offers.”
    • Shayna Coburn, Ph.D., director of Psychosocial Services in the Celiac Disease Program at Children’s National. She is a licensed psychologist specializing in coping and interpersonal relationships in chronic illness treatment, particularly for conditions involving specialized diets. She holds an appointment as assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Her work has focused on promoting effective doctor-patient communication, reducing healthcare disparities and supporting successful adherence across the developmental span of childhood and adolescence. She currently has a Career Development Award from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to refine and test a group intervention designed to improve self-management and quality of life in teens with celiac disease.
      “I hope that my background as a psychologist researcher will help diversify SPR. As an SPR member, I hope to encourage more opportunities for training, awards, and other programs that would be inclusive of clinician researchers who may not hold a traditional medical degree,” said Dr. Coburn.
    • Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S.-H.P.Ed., endocrinologist at Children’s National. As a clinical and translational scientist her goal is to use unique personal experiences and training to optimize both patient and provider knowledge of and behaviors surrounding diabetes technologies thereby realizing the potential of diabetes technologies improve the lives and clinical outcomes of all people living with diabetes. Her experiences as a person living with Type 1 diabetes have undoubtedly shaped her clinical and research interests in diabetes management and medical education.
      “It is an honor to be accepted for membership in the Society for Pediatric Research,” said Dr. Marks.  “Being nominated and recognized by peers in this interprofessional pediatric research community will allow me networking and growth opportunities as I continue to advance my research career.”
insulin pump

Diabetes technology use in the cystic fibrosis community

insulin pump

Although diabetes technologies are associated with improvements in glycemic control and health-related quality of life among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the use and perceptions of continuous glucose monitors (CGM) and insulin pumps within the cystic fibrosis (CF) community have not been well documented.

In a recent study published in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, Brynn Marks, M.D., MS-HPEd, and co-authors, found that compared to T1D, rates of sustained diabetes technology use in the cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) community are low, despite perceived benefits. The authors conclude that better insurance coverage to mitigate cost, better patient education and confirmation that these technologies improve health and patient-reported outcomes may increase uptake.

Read the full article in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics.

doctor taking blood sample from child

Study shows increase in diabetes cases during COVID-19 pandemic

doctor taking blood sample from child

A retrospective study found pediatric Type 1 diabetes cases rose 15.2% and Type 2 diabetes cases increased by 182% during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior two years— affecting non-Hispanic Black youth the most.

While the effects of COVID-19 on diabetes-related outcomes are extensively studied in adults, data about the incidence and severity of presentation of pediatric new-onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is limited. A new retrospective study of 737 youth diagnosed with diabetes at Children’s National Hospital between March 11, 2018 and March 10, 2021 found pediatric T1D cases rose 15.2% and T2D cases increased by 182% during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior two years — affecting non-Hispanic Black youth the most.

The study, published in Hormone Research in Paediatrics, compared T1D and T2D cases during the first 12 months of the pandemic, between March 11, 2020 and March 10, 2021, to the same time in the previous two years. This increase in cases was accompanied by a nearly six-fold rise in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and a 9.2% incidence of hyperosmolar DKA during the pandemic as compared to no cases in the two years prior.

“A better understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for raising public awareness, shaping policy and guiding appropriate health screenings,” said Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S.H.P.Ed., endocrinologist at Children’s National and lead author of the study.

Children’s National provides clinical care to approximately 1,800 youth with T1D and 600 youth with T2D annually. In the two years before the pandemic, cases of T2D accounted for 25.1% of all newly diagnosed diabetes at Children’s National compared to 43.7% during the pandemic. Before the pandemic, females accounted for 59.6% of youth with new-onset T2D but 58.9% of new-onset T2D cases were among males during the pandemic.

The researchers noted that the rise in cases of T2D and severity of presentation of both T1D and T2D during the pandemic disproportionately impacted non-Hispanic Black youth (NHB). NHB youth accounted for 58% of cases of T2D pre-pandemic, which further increased to 77% during the pandemic. The findings also showed that cases of DKA among NHB youth newly diagnosed with T1D increased during the pandemic compared to the two years before (62.7% vs. 45.8%, p=0.02).  Before the pandemic, there was no significant difference in A1c at T1D diagnosis between racial and ethnic groups. However, during the pandemic, hemoglobin A1c levels were higher among NHB youth.

“Future studies are needed to understand the root cause of the disproportionate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on non-Hispanic Black youth with newly diagnosed diabetes,” said Dr. Marks. “These outcomes during the pandemic will likely worsen pre-existing health care disparities among youth with diabetes.  In understanding the indirect effects of our response to the pandemic, we can better inform future emergency responses and develop strategies to improve outcomes for all youth living with diabetes.”

Blood sample tube for anti-Müllerian hormone

A look at the clinical utility of anti-Mullerian hormone

Blood sample tube for anti-Müllerian hormone

Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), also known as Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), is a hormone produced exclusively in the gonads. It was originally described in the context of sexual differentiation in the male fetus but has gained prominence now as a marker of ovarian reserve and fertility in females.

In a mini-review published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, M.D., pediatric endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital and an associate professor of pediatrics at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, and co-authors offer an updated synopsis on AMH and its clinical utility in pediatric patients.

The authors performed a systematic search for studies related to the physiology of AMH, normative data and clinical role in pediatrics. After reviewing 70 clinical studies and systematic reviews, they conclude that, “AMH has widespread clinical diagnostic utility in pediatrics but interpretation is often challenging and should be undertaken in the context of not only age and sex but also developmental and pubertal stage of the child.”

Other authors from Children’s National Hospital include Andrew Dauber, M.D., MMSc, Tazim Dowlut-Mcelroy, M.D., and Veronica Gomez-Lobo, M.D.

Read the full review in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

blood glucose monitoring system

Patterns of continuous glucose monitoring use in young children after T1D diagnosis

blood glucose monitoring system

The findings suggest that, when clinically appropriate, continuous glucose monitoring initiation near or at the time of diagnosis benefits glycemic outcomes in young children when followed by sustained use.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a blood glucose monitoring device worn on the body that is linked to positive glycemic outcomes in people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, very little research has examined CGM use and glycemic outcomes in young children, particularly those newly diagnosed with T1D.

A new Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics study led by Randi Streisand, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S., Chief of Psychology and Behavioral Health at Children’s National Hospital, and others identified four meaningful trajectories of CGM use among young children across 18-months post-T1D diagnosis: those who “always” used CGM; those who got on CGM later but stayed on it (“late/stable”); those who used CGM inconsistently; and those who “never” used CGM. The investigators conducted a study of 157 parents of young children (1-6 years) newly diagnosed with T1D who enrolled in a behavioral intervention.

Importantly, the authors found that those with private insurance were more likely than those with only public insurance to be in the “always” and “late/stable” groups (as opposed to the “never” group). Those in the “always” and “late/stable” groups also had better glycemic outcomes than those in the “never group” at 18-months post-T1D diagnosis.

“This research highlights that insurance type can be a barrier to accessing CGM,” Dr. Streisand noted. “Further, this is one of the first studies, among newly diagnosed young children, to show that CGM initiation at diagnosis or near diagnosis followed by sustained use is associated with better glycemic outcomes compared to never initiating CGM, supporting findings from other studies conducted with older youth.”

The findings inform clinical care with patients as it suggests that, when clinically appropriate, CGM initiation near or at the time of diagnosis benefits glycemic outcomes in young children when followed by sustained use. This is the only study to examine patterns of CGM use among 1-6-year-old children newly diagnosed with T1D over the first 18-months post-diagnosis.

“It was exciting to find differences in glycemic outcomes based on CGM initiation and use in this unique population,” Dr. Streisand said. However, the authors concluded that, given the health benefits of CGM, further exploration of barriers to CGM access and use among some families is needed.

In addition to Dr. Streisand, other Children’s National co-authors include Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S. HPEd.; Carrie Tully, Ph.D.Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.E. , and Christine Wang, Ph.D.

US News badges

For fifth year in a row, Children’s National Hospital nationally ranked a top 10 children’s hospital

US News badges

Children’s National Hospital in Washington, D.C., was ranked in the top 10 nationally in the U.S. News & World Report 2021-22 Best Children’s Hospitals annual rankings. This marks the fifth straight year Children’s National has made the Honor Roll list, which ranks the top 10 children’s hospitals nationwide. In addition, its neonatology program, which provides newborn intensive care, ranked No.1 among all children’s hospitals for the fifth year in a row.

For the eleventh straight year, Children’s National also ranked in all 10 specialty services, with seven specialties ranked in the top 10.

“It is always spectacular to be named one of the nation’s best children’s hospitals, but this year more than ever,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., president and CEO of Children’s National. “Every member of our organization helped us achieve this level of excellence, and they did it while sacrificing so much in order to help our country respond to and recover from the COVID-19 pandemic.”

“When choosing a hospital for a sick child, many parents want specialized expertise, convenience and caring medical professionals,” said Ben Harder, chief of health analysis and managing editor at U.S. News. “The Best Children’s Hospitals rankings have always highlighted hospitals that excel in specialized care. As the pandemic continues to affect travel, finding high-quality care close to home has never been more important.”

The annual rankings are the most comprehensive source of quality-related information on U.S. pediatric hospitals. The rankings recognize the nation’s top 50 pediatric hospitals based on a scoring system developed by U.S. News. The top 10 scorers are awarded a distinction called the Honor Roll.

The bulk of the score for each specialty service is based on quality and outcomes data. The process includes a survey of relevant specialists across the country, who are asked to list hospitals they believe provide the best care for patients with the most complex conditions.

Below are links to the seven Children’s National specialty services that U.S. News ranked in the top 10 nationally:

The other three specialties ranked among the top 50 were cardiology and heart surgerygastroenterology and gastro-intestinal surgery, and urology.

vials and needles

Study examines severity of COVID-19 on kids with Type 1 diabetes

vials and needles

A new study published in the Journal of Diabetes, found that although nearly 80% of youth with Type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 infection are managed at home, youth from racial and ethnic minority groups – those with higher hemoglobin A1c values – and those with public insurance are at increased risk for hospitalization.

In a new study published in the Journal of Diabetes, researchers found that although nearly 80% of youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and COVID-19 infection are managed at home, youth from racial and ethnic minority groups – those with higher hemoglobin A1c values – and those with public insurance are at increased risk for hospitalization. Most hospitalizations among these youth were related to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (72%) and 86% of youth hospitalized had an A1c value over 9%. The increased risk for DKA among racial and ethnic minority groups and publicly insured youth in this study is indicative of disparities in T1D outcomes and aligns with other research findings both before and during the pandemic.

Adults with certain underlying medical conditions, like diabetes, are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Though there are limited data on youth with T1D who have been infected with COVID-19, viral infections can make it harder to control blood glucose levels. If not properly managed, infections may lead to DKA, a serious life-threatening condition where the body converts fat instead of sugar into energy, causing ketones to build up in the blood and acid levels to rise.

“There is still more to learn about COVID-19 and how it affects children with diabetes and other underlying medical conditions,” said Brynn Marks, M.D., MS-HPEd, pediatric endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital and one of the study’s co-authors. “We are hopeful that this latest data will emphasize the importance of optimizing glycemic control and give physicians and families more information about the virus and T1D so that severe illness and hospitalizations can possibly be prevented.”

In April 2020, the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative, along with endocrinology clinics across the U.S., formed a COVID-19 clinical registry to better understand symptoms and outcomes of patients with T1D who also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 46 centers nationwide, including Children’s National Hospital, submitted data to this novel registry of 266 youth under the age of 19 with previously established T1D and laboratory confirmed COVID-19.

The study found that nearly 80% of youth with T1D and known COVID-19 infection were cared for at home without any adverse outcomes. It is also important to note that COVID-19 was incidentally discovered in 16% of hospitalized youth admitted for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 or T1D (e.g. urological procedures, psychiatric admissions). However, the data revealed a disproportionate rate of hospitalizations and DKA among racial and ethnic minority groups, children who were publicly insured and those with higher A1c. Out of the 266 patients, 72% of the 61 patients were hospitalized due to DKA. An overwhelming majority (82%) of hospitalized patients had an A1c value greater than 9%. More than 40% of non-Hispanic Black youth in the study were hospitalized as compared to 14% of non-Hispanic white youth. Researchers also noted that those patients with public insurance were less likely to use insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors, emphasizing the continued need to improve more access to diabetes technologies.

“Diabetes technology has advanced rapidly in the last decade and access to insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors is improving, however these technological advances are perpetuating pre-existing disparities in T1D care and outcomes,” Dr. Marks said. “The data is clear and there is a pressing need to act to promote optimal care for all people with T1D.”

Recently, Dr. Marks and the Children’s National Diabetes team became official members of the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Collaborative. The team looks forward to using the opportunity to improve diabetes care both here at Children’s National and across the country.

 

Gracie Popielarcheck

Raising awareness about Turner Syndrome

Gracie Popielarcheck

Gracie Popielarcheck was diagnosed at age one with Turner Syndrome.

By Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, M.D., M.S., Director of the Turner Syndrome Program at Children’s National Hospital.

The Children’s National  Turner Syndrome Clinic is part of the Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes which is ranked by U.S. News & World Report as one of the top 10 programs in the nation. The clinic opened in January 2019 and is the first of its kind in the Washington, D.C., region. A multidisciplinary clinic is held once a month with a team experts in cardiology, endocrinology, psychology, gynecology and genetics to help care for the needs of patients with Turner Syndrome all in one day. The referral network of specialties includes neuropsychology, otolaryngology, audiology, orthopedics, urology and dentistry.

Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare disease affecting girls, with a prevalence of around 25-50 out of every 100,000 females. It is caused by partial or complete loss of the second sex chromosome. This affects multiple organs and can cause heart defects, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss and learning difficulties. It also affects growth and puberty and can cause infertility. Although the condition was first described in 1938 by Henry Turner, an endocrinologist from Oklahoma, and is well characterized, there is a significant delay in diagnosis and recognition of the condition, especially in milder forms that can still significantly impact the well-being of the individual.

Gracie Popielarcheck with a pet bird

“Having a Turner Syndrome clinic near our city has made life so much easier,” says Gracie’s mom, Leslie Popielarcheck. “We can see all of Gracie’s specialists all in one day and under one roof.”

Families often ask why it took so long to recognize this condition. Many findings can be subtle, the presentation can vary greatly and often short stature may be overlooked in some girls. We now recognize that the classic form (monosomy X) impacts less than half of the girls and the rest have mosaicism (45,X/ 46XX) or other structural abnormalities in the X-chromosome. Recognizing features beyond the classic “short stature, neck webbing, lymphedema and cardiac defects” is indeed important to get timely care for these girls and women across the lifespan. Many have recurrent ear infections and hearing loss. Most have a normal intelligence, and even superior verbal skills but face challenges in visual spatial perception, executive function, working memory and social cognition that impact academic achievement.

13-year-old Gracie Popielarcheck was diagnosed with TS at the age of one after her parents noticed a delay in her speech and development. “We had never heard of Turner Syndrome when Gracie was diagnosed,” says Leslie Popielarcheck, Gracie’s mom. “Gracie didn’t have the classic physical features that girls with Turner Syndrome are known to have.”

With support, most of these girls and women can manage the medical and psychosocial challenges and rise to their full potential. Advances in the field and multidisciplinary care models have helped in the establishment of TS clinics across the country that strive to improve the standard care for these girls.

However, several challenges remain:

  • Improving awareness among primary care physicians in regard to the extended spectrum and variability of presentation at a wide variety of ages
  • Decreasing health disparities and making multidisciplinary clinics and comprehensive care available and accessible even to disadvantaged communities
  • Ensuring adequate medical and social support for transition of young adults and care of adults with Turner syndrome
Gracie P., Kyra Dorfman with Dr. Shankar

Kyra Dorfman, Dr. Shankar and Gracie.

Our TS program, initiated 2 years ago, aims to overcome these challenges and provide care to families impacted by TS in our community. We strive to serve as a Regional Resource for the community as well as physicians in our community and have been recognized by the TSGA (Turner syndrome Global Alliance) as one of only nine clinics nationwide with a Level 4 designation.

“Having a Turner Syndrome clinic near our city has made life so much easier,” Popielarcheck says. “We can see all of Gracie’s specialists all in one day and under one roof.”

As we highlight these resources for the Turner Syndrome Awareness Month this February 2021, and celebrate the strength and tenacity of our beautiful girls, we hope our efforts will improve recognition of the condition and delivery of comprehensive medical care and support to the community we serve.

boy checking his blood glucose

There’s still more to learn about COVID-19 and diabetes

boy checking his blood glucose

Researchers have learned a lot about COVID-19 over the past year and are continuing to learn and study more about this infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There have been many questions about whether COVID-19 affects people with diabetes differently than those without and why this might occur.

Diabetes experts, like Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S.H.P.Ed., endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital, have been studying the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes, especially in the pediatric population. Dr. Marks tells us more about what we know so far and further research that needs to be done when it comes to COVID-19 and diabetes.

1.      What do we know about COVID-19 and its effect on people with known diabetes?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently lists type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a high risk condition for severe illness related to COVID-19 infection, while stating that adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) might be at increased risk. A recent study from Vanderbilt University found that people with T1D and T2D were at approximately equal risk for complications of COVID-19 infection. As compared to adults without diabetes, adults with T1D and T2D were 3-4 times more likely to be hospitalized and to have greater illness severity. Given these comparable risks, both the American Diabetes Association and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation are lobbying for adults with T1D to be given the same level or priority for COVID-19 vaccines as adults with T2D.

However, as pediatricians, we all know to be wary of extrapolating adult data to pediatrics. Children are less likely to be infected with COVID-19 and if they are, the clinical course is typically mild. To date, there have not been any studies of the impact of COVID-19 on youth with known T2D. Our clinical experience at Children’s National Hospital and reports from international multicenter studies indicate that youth with T1D are not at increased risk for hospitalization from COVID-19 infection. However, paralleling ongoing disparities in T1D care, African Americans with known T1D and COVID-19 infection were more likely to be develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) than their White counterparts.

With the increased use of diabetes technologies, including continuous glucose monitors, insulin pumps and automated insulin delivery systems, diabetes care lends itself well to telemedicine. Studies from Italy during the period of lockdown showed better glycemic control among youth with T1D. Further studies are needed to better understand the implications of telehealth on diabetes care, particularly among those in rural areas with limited access to care.

Brynn Marks

Diabetes experts, like Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S.H.P.Ed., endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital, have been studying the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes, especially in the pediatric population.

2.      What do we know about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with newly diagnosed diabetes?

Nationwide studies from Italy and Germany over the first few months of the pandemic found no increase in the incidence of pediatric T1D during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the year before; in fact, the Italian study found that fewer children were diagnosed with T1D during the pandemic. However, many centers are seeing higher rates of DKA and more severe DKA at diagnosis during the pandemic, possibly due to decreased primary care visits and/or fears of contracting COVID-19 while seeking care.

To date, no studies have been published exploring the incidence of T2D in youth. A group from Children’s National, including myself, Myrto Flokas, M.D., Abby Meyers, M.D., and Elizabeth Estrada, M.D., from the Division of Endocrinology and Randi Streisand, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S. and Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S., from the Department of Psychology and Behavioral Health, are gathering data to compare the incidence of T1D and T2D during the pandemic as compared to the year before.

3.      Can COVID-19 cause diabetes to develop?

This has been area of great interest, but the jury is still out. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19 infection, binds the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor which is located in many tissues throughout the body, including the pancreas. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to infect pancreatic tissue leading to impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virus could plausibly cause diabetes, assessment has been complicated by many confounders that could be contributing to hyperglycemia in addition to or rather than the virus itself. Stress-induced hyperglycemia from acute illness, the use of high dose steroids to treat COVID-19 infection, and the disproportionate rates of infection among those already at high risk for T2D, as well as weight gain due to changes in day-to-day life as a result of social distancing precautions are all likely contributing factors.

woman writing data to medical form and glucometer for checking sugar level

New grant to assess screening tools for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes

woman writing data to medical form and glucometer for checking sugar level

A grant from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation will help Children’s National researchers assess the feasibility and accuracy of two new cystic fibrosis-related diabetes screening tools.

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common non-pulmonary manifestation of cystic fibrosis (CF), affecting up to 30% of adolescents and 50% of adults living with CF, according to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF). CFRD is often asymptomatic and so the CFF recommends that people living with CF be screened for CFRD annually starting at 10 years of age using an oral glucose tolerance test.

Although early detection and treatment of CFRD can lead to significant clinical improvements and prolong life, rates of screening are poor, likely due to the burdensome nature of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). Rates of OGTT screening in patients 10-17 years of age vary widely among CF care centers, ranging 5.9% to 100% with a median of 61.3% of patients at a given center completing screening. At Children’s National, only 46.4% of pediatric CF patients without CFRD completed the OGTT in 2019.  The most commonly cited reason for failure to complete recommended OGTT screening is the additional burden that this time-consuming fasting test, requiring three blood draws, places upon patients who already contend with multiple medical interventions.

“People living with CF face tremendous medical burdens.,” says Brynn Marks, M.D., MSHPEd, pediatric endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital. “Novel, more convenient approaches to CFRD screening that can provide both diagnostic and therapeutic information are urgently needed.”

Dr. Marks and Carol Chace, MSW, a social worker at Children’s National, have collaborated to receive a $160,000 Pilot and Feasibility Award from the CFF that will allow researchers to assess the feasibility and accuracy of two new CFRD screening tools, the Dexcom G6 Pro, a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and the Digostics GTT@home, a home-based OGTT kit. The Dexcom G6 Pro is the first unblinded professional CGM that enables patients to see their glucose values and trends in real-time. The GTT@home uses a built-in timer and audio-visual cues to guide users to collect capillary blood samples through finger sticks.

“While the idea of home-based testing is exciting in general, it is particularly important in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, as many are limiting preventative health care visits,” says Dr. Marks. “This research will hopefully inform future larger studies that could one day allow for this screening to be done at home.”

iLet-Bionic-Pancreas

Children’s National to test bionic pancreas

iLet-Bionic-Pancreas

The iLet bionic pancreas helps patients manage their diabetes by both monitoring blood glucose levels and administering insulin and glucagon.

Children’s National Hospital has been selected to participate in a multi-center clinical trial to test the efficacy of the iLet bionic pancreas — a device that automatically regulates blood sugar levels in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

Patients generally manage diabetes by constantly monitoring their blood sugar levels and administering insulin when necessary. Unfortunately, too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, which can result in hypoglycemic seizures, coma or rarely, death. Thus, it is extremely important for people with diabetes to regulate their insulin dosages and maintain their blood sugar levels within a range decided by the family and diabetes team.

“The burden of caring for diabetes on a daily basis is grueling,” says Seema Meighan, FNP, a nurse practitioner involved in the upcoming clinical trial. “It is by far one of the most challenging chronic diseases to manage, and requires vigilant participation 100 percent of the time to stay well controlled.”

The iLet bionic pancreas helps patients manage their diabetes by both monitoring blood glucose levels and administering insulin and glucagon — a pancreatic hormone that raises blood sugar levels.

“In a traditional infusion pump, patients only have access to insulin to control glucose levels,” explains Meighan. “This can become problematic when it comes to hypoglycemia. The hope with a bi-hormonal system is that glucagon can be delivered during times that the glucose is low in order to stabilize levels without user interaction.”

Developed at Boston University by Edward Damiano, Ph.D., and Firas El-Khatib, Ph.D., the iLet is a hand-held device about the size of an iPhone but twice as thick, and can easily fit into a pocket. The unit consists of a dual chamber infusion pump that can be configured to deliver only insulin, only glucagon or both hormones. The device uses a wireless glucose sensor on the patient’s body to test blood sugar levels every five minutes. It then determines which hormone is needed and administers it via catheters connected to the patient.

In short-term studies, the iLet was able to maintain blood glucose levels close to normal in both adults and children in carefully controlled environments.

In 2016, the Children’s National Hospital Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, led by diabetologist Fran Cogen, M.D., C.D.C.E.S., was one of several pediatric sites that were selected to participate in pivotal clinical trials to further test the efficacy of the bionic pancreas. In June 2020, the team at Children’s National began enrolling patients to test iLet devices that only deliver insulin. Once these initial studies are completed, the team will perform an additional trial to test iLet devices configured to deliver both insulin and glucagon.

“This trial is important as it represents the first dual chamber pump to manage glucose levels,” says Meighan. “It could potentially change the way we treat diabetes entirely. It represents a hope to our patients and families that one day this disease will have far less of a daily burden than it currently does.”

Currently, there are 18 patients enrolled in the clinical trial. An initial test run on two patients was successfully completed in November 2020. In early January 2021, the first patient was started on the bionic pancreas to begin the randomized controlled study and three additional patients, who completed the screening process, will join the study shortly. The screening and initiation of the study will continue in the remaining patients.

Lee Beers

Lee Beers, M.D., F.A.A.P, begins term as AAP president

Lee Beers

“The past year has been a stark reminder about the importance of partnership and working together toward common goals,” says Dr. Beers. “I am humbled and honored to be taking on this role at such a pivotal moment for the future health and safety of not only children, but the community at large.”

Lee Savio Beers, M.D., F.A.A.P., medical director of Community Health and Advocacy at the Child Health Advocacy Institute (CHAI) at Children’s National Hospital, has begun her term as president of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The AAP is an organization of 67,000 pediatricians committed to the optimal physical, mental and social health and well-being for all children – from infancy to adulthood.

“The past year has been a stark reminder about the importance of partnership and working together toward common goals,” says Dr. Beers. “I am humbled and honored to be taking on this role at such a pivotal moment for the future health and safety of not only children, but the community at large.”

Dr. Beers has pledged to continue AAP’s advocacy and public policy efforts and to further enhance membership diversity and inclusion. Among her signature issues:

  • Partnering with patients, families, communities, mental health providers and pediatricians to co-design systems to bolster children’s resiliency and to alleviate growing pediatric mental health concerns.
  • Continuing to support pediatricians during the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on education, pediatric practice support, vaccine delivery systems and physician wellness.
  • Implementation of the AAP’s Equity Agenda and Year 1 Equity Workplan.

Dr. Beers is looking forward to continuing her work bringing together the diverse voices of pediatricians, children and families as well as other organizations to support improving the health of all children.

“Dr. Beers has devoted her career to helping children,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., president and chief executive officer of Children’s National. “She has developed a national advocacy platform for children and will be of tremendous service to children within AAP national leadership.”

Read more about Dr. Beer’s career and appointment as president of the AAP.

Drs. Dewesh Agrawal, Andrew Dauber, Robert Freishtat, Vittorio Gallo

Four Children’s National Hospital leaders named to APS

Drs. Dewesh Agrawal, Andrew Dauber, Robert Freishtat, Vittorio Gallo

Drs. Dewesh Agrawal, Andrew Dauber, Robert Freishtat and Vittorio Gallo were named as 2021 American Pediatric Society members.

The American Pediatric Society (APS) has announced 55 new members, four of which are experts from Children’s National Hospital. Founded in 1888, the APS is the first and most prestigious academic pediatric organization in North America.

APS members are recognized child health leaders of extraordinary achievement who work together to shape the future of academic pediatrics. New members are nominated by current members through a process that recognizes individuals who have distinguished themselves as child health leaders, teachers, scholars, policymakers and/or clinicians.

“Our members represent the most distinguished and accomplished academic leaders in pediatrics whose outstanding work has advanced child health,” said APS President Steven Abman, M.D. “I am honored to welcome this exceptional group of individuals to the APS. The APS is especially looking forward to the active engagement of our membership with many exciting programs within the organization that are directed towards improvements in academic pediatric medicine, including more vigorous approaches to express our values of anti-racism, equity, diversity and inclusion.”

APS 2021 active new members from Children’s National are:

  • Dewesh Agrawal, M.D., vice-chair for Medical Education at Children’s National. Agrawal’s career has been marked by academic honors and teaching awards at every stage of his training and faculty employment. He has relentlessly devoted his energy to improving the educational experience for students, residents and fellows at Children’s National.
  • Andrew Dauber, M.D., M.M.Sc., chief of Endocrinology at Children’s National. Dr. Dauber’s leadership is reflected, nationally and internationally, in his ability to create research consortia, bringing together investigators to tackle complex questions. For example, he leads an NIH-funded consortium on the genetics of short statures, with multiple top children’s hospitals as partners. He also leads a large clinical trial testing a novel therapeutic agent for genetic short stature.
  • Robert Freishtat, M.D., M.P.H., senior investigator in the Center for Genetic Medicine of the Children’s National Research Institute (CNRI). Dr. Freishtat has authored or co-authored more than 100 articles and book chapters in the fields of pediatric lung injury, asthma, obesity, exosomes and emergency medicine. His research has been continuously funded by the NIH since 2003.
  • Vittorio Gallo, Ph.D., chief research officer at Children’s National and scientific director of CNRI. Dr. Gallo’s scientific success is attested to by over 130 peer-reviewed publications, many in very high-profile journals, as well as over 30 review articles and book chapters. He has received many national and international awards, including the NINDS Javits award in Neuroscience in 2018. Dr. Gallo has served on the editorial boards of many neuroscience journals, including Glia and the Annual Review in Neuroscience, and has been reviewing editor for the Journal of Neuroscience, all of which is a testament to the tremendous impact that his studies have had on the advancement of neurosciences.

“These new members represent multiple areas of Children’s National and have all leveraged the intersection of science, medicine and clinical education to make advances in their field of study,” said Stephen J. Teach, M.D., M.P.H., chair of the Department of Pediatrics at Children’s National. “Their work has, and will continue to, advance pediatric health care, and I congratulate them on their APS membership.”

little girl measuring her height

Study may change treatment of childhood growth disorders

little girl measuring her height

A new Phase 2 study at Children’s National will look at using the drug vosoritide to promote growth in children with growth disorders.

A child’s growth is often measured by pediatricians during routine physicals to identify abnormalities of growth and stature. An abnormality in these measurements could mean a child has a growth disorder. There are many different causes of growth disorders. Some can be the result of defects in genes related to the growth plate, which is the tissue near the end of long bones that grows as the child grows. Children with a growth disorder can present many different symptoms including short stature, joint pain, heart problems, bone problems and developmental delays. Scientists still have a lot to learn about what exactly causes these genetic growth disorders and treatments are limited, especially in the pediatric population. Growth hormone is not uniformly helpful and has only been approved for a small number of conditions.

Vosoritide is an investigational drug that directly targets the growth plate to promote growth. It is an analog of the amino acid C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). It binds its receptor on healthy cartilage cells called chondrocytes and is currently under investigation in clinical trials as a treatment for the bone growth disorder achondroplasia.

“Vosoritide for Selected Genetic Causes of Short Stature” is a Phase 2 study currently open at Children’s National Hospital. This study will target five types of genetic short stature including SHOX deficiency, hypochondroplasia, Rasopathies (which includes Noonan syndrome), heterozygous NPR2 defects and CNP deficiency.

Thirty-five children with short stature will be enrolled and followed for a six-month observation period to obtain baseline growth velocity, safety profile and quality of life assessment. Study participants will then be treated with vosoritide for 12 months and will be assessed for safety and improvement in growth outcomes.

“Many patients who present with short stature likely have genetic defects in genes involved in growth plate physiology. Those patients with selected causes of short stature that interact with the CNP pathway may benefit from treatment with vosoritide, which directly targets the growth plate,” said Andrew Dauber, M.D., MMSc., lead investigator of this clinical study and chief of Endocrinology at Children’s National Hospital, a program ranked in the top 10 by U.S. News & World Report. “In this study, our goal is to understand if vosoritide may be a safe and effective treatment option for certain genetically defined short stature syndromes.”

This clinical trial has been approved by the FDA and funded by BioMarin. Children’s National is the only site in the world offering this therapy for patients with these conditions. The study is currently underway and subject recruitment is ongoing. There are 9 participants enrolled to date.

“This study could fundamentally change the way we treat certain growth disorders”, says Dr. Dauber.

For more information on the clinical trial, click here.

Research & Innovation Campus

Boeing gives $5 million to support Research & Innovation Campus

Research & Innovation Campus

Children’s National Hospital announced a $5 million gift from The Boeing Company that will help drive lifesaving pediatric discoveries at the new Children’s National Research & Innovation Campus.

Children’s National Hospital announced a $5 million gift from The Boeing Company that will help drive lifesaving pediatric discoveries at the new Children’s National Research & Innovation Campus. The campus, now under construction, is being developed on nearly 12 acres of the former Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Children’s National will name the main auditorium in recognition of Boeing’s generosity.

“We are deeply grateful to Boeing for their support and commitment to improving the health and well-being of children in our community and around the globe,” said Kurt Newman, M.D., president and CEO of Children’s National “The Boeing Auditorium will help the Children’s National Research & Innovation campus become the destination for discussion about how to best address the next big healthcare challenges facing children and families.”

The one-of-a-kind pediatric hub will bring together public and private partners for unprecedented collaborations. It will accelerate the translation of breakthroughs into new treatments and technologies to benefit kids everywhere.

“Children’s National Hospital’s enduring mission of positively impacting the lives of our youngest community members is especially important today,” said Boeing President and CEO David Calhoun. “We’re honored to join other national and community partners to advance this work through the establishment of their Research & Innovation Campus.”

Children’s National Research & Innovation Campus partners currently include Johnson & Johnson Innovation – JLABS, Virginia Tech, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Food & Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), Cerner, Amazon Web Services, Microsoft, National Organization of Rare Diseases (NORD) and local government.

The 3,200 square-foot Boeing Auditorium will be the focal point of the state-of-the-art conference center on campus. Nationally renowned experts will convene with scientists, medical leaders and diplomats from around the world to foster collaborations that spur progress and disseminate findings.

Boeing’s $5 million commitment deepens its longstanding partnership with Children’s National. The company has donated nearly $2 million to support pediatric care and research at Children’s National through Chance for Life and the hospital’s annual Children’s Ball. During the coronavirus pandemic, Boeing fabricated and donated 2,000 face shields to help keep patients and frontline care providers at Children’s National safe.

Clinic Level 4 Regional Resource Center Badge

Turner Syndrome Clinic designated as Level 4 Regional Resource Center

Clinic Level 4 Regional Resource Center Badge

The Children’s National Hospital Turner Syndrome Clinic is proud to be recognized by the Turner Syndrome Global Alliance (TSGA) as a Level 4 Regional Resource Center. Level 4 is the highest Level of Care designation and is based on the KidNECT Care Model which encourages family networking, education, comprehensive coordinated care and transition support as well as leadership in Turner Syndrome (TS) research.

TS is a rare genetic disorder that occurs in 1 to about 2,500 girls and is caused by a partial or complete missing X chromosome. Some of the characteristics of TS are short stature, delayed puberty, kidney, thyroid and heart problems. Although there is no cure for TS, many of the symptoms can be treated.

The Children’s National TS Clinic is part of the Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes which is ranked by U.S. News & World Report as one of the top 10 programs in the nation. The TS Clinic opened in January 2019 and is the first one-of-its-kind in the Washington, D.C. region. A multidisciplinary clinic is held once a month with the team comprising of cardiology, endocrinology, psychology, gynecology and genetics to help care for the needs of patients with TS all in one day. The referral network of specialties includes neuropsychology, otolaryngology, audiology, orthopedics, urology and dentistry.

“I am so proud of our team for their hard work and the excellent clinical care they provide for girls with Turner Syndrome,” says Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, M.D., endocrinologist at Children’s National. “This recognition by the Turner Syndrome Global Alliance means that we not only provide comprehensive care but also serve as a regional leader and resource center for the families we serve. We will continue to raise awareness about Turner Syndrome through our research and partnerships.”

Randi Streisand

Randi Streisand, Ph.D., receives 2020 Richard R. Rubin Award

Randi Streisand

Randi Streisand, Ph.D., is the recipient of the 2020 Richard R. Rubin Award. This national award, sponsored by the American Diabetes Association, recognizes a scientist who has made outstanding, innovative contributions to the study and understanding of the behavioral aspects of diabetes.

Currently, Dr. Streisand is a tenured professor of psychology and pediatrics at The George Washington University School of Medicine and serves as chief of the Division of Psychology & Behavioral Health at Children’s National Hospital. Additionally, she serves as vice-chair for the Institutional Review Board, and provides clinical services for families impacted by diabetes and other health conditions. She is also an active mentor and educator for trainees and early career faculty members regarding research and clinical service.

Throughout her career, Dr. Streisand has received multiple research and training grants, published approximately 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international meetings. She has also been recognized for her mentorship and received awards from Children’s National as well as the Society of Pediatric Psychology. Dr. Streisand’s research is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and focuses on parent-child adjustment to diabetes, and behavioral interventions to promote adjustment, adherence and glycemic control. Her research has included young children through teenagers, and she is currently evaluating the use of a parent coach program to support parents of young children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

Dr. Streisand has served on several editorial boards for journals, serves as a grant reviewer for NIH, and has served in elected positions for professional organizations. She is also a Certified Diabetes Educator.

DNA moleucle

Genetics can’t explain mixed impact of growth hormone therapy

DNA moleucle

Growth hormone therapy is one of the most common treatments for short stature in children. However, endocrinologists report mixed outcomes, even when children have the same underlying condition as the cause of their short stature. Despite research into a variety of potential causes for this unpredictable response, there is still very little scientific evidence to help physicians predict whether children with short stature who are treated with growth hormone will respond to the treatment or not.

A study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism took up this question with an eye to the genetic factors that might predict response by conducting the first ever genome-wide association study of response to growth hormone.

“Previous disease-specific models have been developed using multiple clinical variables such as parental height, age at treatment start, peak hormone levels and doses, and birth parameters, however, these clinical parameters only partially predict variation in response,” wrote the study authors, including Andrew Dauber, M.D., first author and chief of the division of Endocrinology at Children’s National Hospital. “Our goal was to perform a large-scale genome-wide study to provide a comprehensive assessment of how common genetic variation may play a role in growth hormone response.”

To accomplish this, the study combined five cohorts from across the world to identify 614 individuals for further review. All patients had short stature caused by conditions including growth hormone deficiency, small for gestational age, or idiopathic short stature (no previously identified cause), who received growth hormone as treatment.

Interestingly, the researchers found no overwhelming genetic predictors of response to growth hormone. They did identify a few signals that may potentially play a role in the body’s response to growth hormone but noted those signals will need further exploration. The study also ruled out the idea that genetic predictors of height in the general population might predict response to growth hormone.

“Identifying genetic predictors of how a child with short stature will respond to growth hormone would be an important step forward for clinicians and parents to make informed decisions about the right treatment approach,” says Dr. Dauber. “Though we didn’t find any specific indicators, this large-scale study has allowed us to rule out some previously held assumptions and offers several new avenues to explore.”

The study was conducted in collaboration with Pfizer and Boston Children’s Hospital.

Children's National Endocrinology and Diabetes Division Stats

2020 at a glance: Endocrinology and Diabetes at Children’s National

The Children’s National Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes is consistently recognized by U.S. News & World Report as one of the top programs in the nation.

US News Badges

Children’s National ranked a top 10 children’s hospital and No. 1 in newborn care nationally by U.S. News

US News Badges

Children’s National Hospital in Washington, D.C., was ranked No. 7 nationally in the U.S. News & World Report 2020-21 Best Children’s Hospitals annual rankings. This marks the fourth straight year Children’s National has made the list, which ranks the top 10 children’s hospitals nationwide.

In addition, its neonatology program, which provides newborn intensive care, ranked No.1 among all children’s hospitals for the fourth year in a row.

For the tenth straight year, Children’s National also ranked in all 10 specialty services, with seven specialties ranked in the top 10.

“Our number one goal is to provide the best care possible to children. Being recognized by U.S. News as one of the best hospitals reflects the strength that comes from putting children and their families first, and we are truly honored,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., president and CEO of Children’s National Hospital.

“This year, the news is especially meaningful, because our teams — like those at hospitals across the country — faced enormous challenges and worked heroically through a global pandemic to deliver excellent care.”

“Even in the midst of a pandemic, children have healthcare needs ranging from routine vaccinations to life-saving surgery and chemotherapy,” said Ben Harder, managing editor and chief of Health Analysis at U.S. News. “The Best Children’s Hospitals rankings are designed to help parents find quality medical care for a sick child and inform families’ conversations with pediatricians.”

The annual rankings are the most comprehensive source of quality-related information on U.S. pediatric hospitals. The rankings recognize the nation’s top 50 pediatric hospitals based on a scoring system developed by U.S. News. The top 10 scorers are awarded a distinction called the Honor Roll.

The bulk of the score for each specialty service is based on quality and outcomes data. The process includes a survey of relevant specialists across the country, who are asked to list hospitals they believe provide the best care for patients with the most complex conditions.

Below are links to the seven Children’s National specialty services that U.S. News ranked in the top 10 nationally:

The other three specialties ranked among the top 50 were cardiology and heart surgery, gastroenterology and gastro-intestinal surgery, and urology.