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blood glucose monitoring system

Patterns of continuous glucose monitoring use in young children after T1D diagnosis

blood glucose monitoring system

The findings suggest that, when clinically appropriate, continuous glucose monitoring initiation near or at the time of diagnosis benefits glycemic outcomes in young children when followed by sustained use.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a blood glucose monitoring device worn on the body that is linked to positive glycemic outcomes in people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, very little research has examined CGM use and glycemic outcomes in young children, particularly those newly diagnosed with T1D.

A new Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics study led by Randi Streisand, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S., Chief of Psychology and Behavioral Health at Children’s National Hospital, and others identified four meaningful trajectories of CGM use among young children across 18-months post-T1D diagnosis: those who “always” used CGM; those who got on CGM later but stayed on it (“late/stable”); those who used CGM inconsistently; and those who “never” used CGM. The investigators conducted a study of 157 parents of young children (1-6 years) newly diagnosed with T1D who enrolled in a behavioral intervention.

Importantly, the authors found that those with private insurance were more likely than those with only public insurance to be in the “always” and “late/stable” groups (as opposed to the “never” group). Those in the “always” and “late/stable” groups also had better glycemic outcomes than those in the “never group” at 18-months post-T1D diagnosis.

“This research highlights that insurance type can be a barrier to accessing CGM,” Dr. Streisand noted. “Further, this is one of the first studies, among newly diagnosed young children, to show that CGM initiation at diagnosis or near diagnosis followed by sustained use is associated with better glycemic outcomes compared to never initiating CGM, supporting findings from other studies conducted with older youth.”

The findings inform clinical care with patients as it suggests that, when clinically appropriate, CGM initiation near or at the time of diagnosis benefits glycemic outcomes in young children when followed by sustained use. This is the only study to examine patterns of CGM use among 1-6-year-old children newly diagnosed with T1D over the first 18-months post-diagnosis.

“It was exciting to find differences in glycemic outcomes based on CGM initiation and use in this unique population,” Dr. Streisand said. However, the authors concluded that, given the health benefits of CGM, further exploration of barriers to CGM access and use among some families is needed.

In addition to Dr. Streisand, other Children’s National co-authors include Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S. HPEd.; Carrie Tully, Ph.D.Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.E. , and Christine Wang, Ph.D.

US News badges

For fifth year in a row, Children’s National Hospital nationally ranked a top 10 children’s hospital

US News badges

Children’s National Hospital in Washington, D.C., was ranked in the top 10 nationally in the U.S. News & World Report 2021-22 Best Children’s Hospitals annual rankings. This marks the fifth straight year Children’s National has made the Honor Roll list, which ranks the top 10 children’s hospitals nationwide. In addition, its neonatology program, which provides newborn intensive care, ranked No.1 among all children’s hospitals for the fifth year in a row.

For the eleventh straight year, Children’s National also ranked in all 10 specialty services, with seven specialties ranked in the top 10.

“It is always spectacular to be named one of the nation’s best children’s hospitals, but this year more than ever,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., president and CEO of Children’s National. “Every member of our organization helped us achieve this level of excellence, and they did it while sacrificing so much in order to help our country respond to and recover from the COVID-19 pandemic.”

“When choosing a hospital for a sick child, many parents want specialized expertise, convenience and caring medical professionals,” said Ben Harder, chief of health analysis and managing editor at U.S. News. “The Best Children’s Hospitals rankings have always highlighted hospitals that excel in specialized care. As the pandemic continues to affect travel, finding high-quality care close to home has never been more important.”

The annual rankings are the most comprehensive source of quality-related information on U.S. pediatric hospitals. The rankings recognize the nation’s top 50 pediatric hospitals based on a scoring system developed by U.S. News. The top 10 scorers are awarded a distinction called the Honor Roll.

The bulk of the score for each specialty service is based on quality and outcomes data. The process includes a survey of relevant specialists across the country, who are asked to list hospitals they believe provide the best care for patients with the most complex conditions.

Below are links to the seven Children’s National specialty services that U.S. News ranked in the top 10 nationally:

The other three specialties ranked among the top 50 were cardiology and heart surgerygastroenterology and gastro-intestinal surgery, and urology.

boy checking his blood glucose

There’s still more to learn about COVID-19 and diabetes

boy checking his blood glucose

Researchers have learned a lot about COVID-19 over the past year and are continuing to learn and study more about this infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There have been many questions about whether COVID-19 affects people with diabetes differently than those without and why this might occur.

Diabetes experts, like Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S.H.P.Ed., endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital, have been studying the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes, especially in the pediatric population. Dr. Marks tells us more about what we know so far and further research that needs to be done when it comes to COVID-19 and diabetes.

1.      What do we know about COVID-19 and its effect on people with known diabetes?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently lists type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a high risk condition for severe illness related to COVID-19 infection, while stating that adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) might be at increased risk. A recent study from Vanderbilt University found that people with T1D and T2D were at approximately equal risk for complications of COVID-19 infection. As compared to adults without diabetes, adults with T1D and T2D were 3-4 times more likely to be hospitalized and to have greater illness severity. Given these comparable risks, both the American Diabetes Association and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation are lobbying for adults with T1D to be given the same level or priority for COVID-19 vaccines as adults with T2D.

However, as pediatricians, we all know to be wary of extrapolating adult data to pediatrics. Children are less likely to be infected with COVID-19 and if they are, the clinical course is typically mild. To date, there have not been any studies of the impact of COVID-19 on youth with known T2D. Our clinical experience at Children’s National Hospital and reports from international multicenter studies indicate that youth with T1D are not at increased risk for hospitalization from COVID-19 infection. However, paralleling ongoing disparities in T1D care, African Americans with known T1D and COVID-19 infection were more likely to be develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) than their White counterparts.

With the increased use of diabetes technologies, including continuous glucose monitors, insulin pumps and automated insulin delivery systems, diabetes care lends itself well to telemedicine. Studies from Italy during the period of lockdown showed better glycemic control among youth with T1D. Further studies are needed to better understand the implications of telehealth on diabetes care, particularly among those in rural areas with limited access to care.

Brynn Marks

Diabetes experts, like Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S.H.P.Ed., endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital, have been studying the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes, especially in the pediatric population.

2.      What do we know about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with newly diagnosed diabetes?

Nationwide studies from Italy and Germany over the first few months of the pandemic found no increase in the incidence of pediatric T1D during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the year before; in fact, the Italian study found that fewer children were diagnosed with T1D during the pandemic. However, many centers are seeing higher rates of DKA and more severe DKA at diagnosis during the pandemic, possibly due to decreased primary care visits and/or fears of contracting COVID-19 while seeking care.

To date, no studies have been published exploring the incidence of T2D in youth. A group from Children’s National, including myself, Myrto Flokas, M.D., Abby Meyers, M.D., and Elizabeth Estrada, M.D., from the Division of Endocrinology and Randi Streisand, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S. and Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S., from the Department of Psychology and Behavioral Health, are gathering data to compare the incidence of T1D and T2D during the pandemic as compared to the year before.

3.      Can COVID-19 cause diabetes to develop?

This has been area of great interest, but the jury is still out. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19 infection, binds the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor which is located in many tissues throughout the body, including the pancreas. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to infect pancreatic tissue leading to impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virus could plausibly cause diabetes, assessment has been complicated by many confounders that could be contributing to hyperglycemia in addition to or rather than the virus itself. Stress-induced hyperglycemia from acute illness, the use of high dose steroids to treat COVID-19 infection, and the disproportionate rates of infection among those already at high risk for T2D, as well as weight gain due to changes in day-to-day life as a result of social distancing precautions are all likely contributing factors.

woman writing data to medical form and glucometer for checking sugar level

New grant to assess screening tools for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes

woman writing data to medical form and glucometer for checking sugar level

A grant from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation will help Children’s National researchers assess the feasibility and accuracy of two new cystic fibrosis-related diabetes screening tools.

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common non-pulmonary manifestation of cystic fibrosis (CF), affecting up to 30% of adolescents and 50% of adults living with CF, according to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF). CFRD is often asymptomatic and so the CFF recommends that people living with CF be screened for CFRD annually starting at 10 years of age using an oral glucose tolerance test.

Although early detection and treatment of CFRD can lead to significant clinical improvements and prolong life, rates of screening are poor, likely due to the burdensome nature of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). Rates of OGTT screening in patients 10-17 years of age vary widely among CF care centers, ranging 5.9% to 100% with a median of 61.3% of patients at a given center completing screening. At Children’s National, only 46.4% of pediatric CF patients without CFRD completed the OGTT in 2019.  The most commonly cited reason for failure to complete recommended OGTT screening is the additional burden that this time-consuming fasting test, requiring three blood draws, places upon patients who already contend with multiple medical interventions.

“People living with CF face tremendous medical burdens.,” says Brynn Marks, M.D., MSHPEd, pediatric endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital. “Novel, more convenient approaches to CFRD screening that can provide both diagnostic and therapeutic information are urgently needed.”

Dr. Marks and Carol Chace, MSW, a social worker at Children’s National, have collaborated to receive a $160,000 Pilot and Feasibility Award from the CFF that will allow researchers to assess the feasibility and accuracy of two new CFRD screening tools, the Dexcom G6 Pro, a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and the Digostics GTT@home, a home-based OGTT kit. The Dexcom G6 Pro is the first unblinded professional CGM that enables patients to see their glucose values and trends in real-time. The GTT@home uses a built-in timer and audio-visual cues to guide users to collect capillary blood samples through finger sticks.

“While the idea of home-based testing is exciting in general, it is particularly important in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, as many are limiting preventative health care visits,” says Dr. Marks. “This research will hopefully inform future larger studies that could one day allow for this screening to be done at home.”

iLet-Bionic-Pancreas

Children’s National to test bionic pancreas

iLet-Bionic-Pancreas

The iLet bionic pancreas helps patients manage their diabetes by both monitoring blood glucose levels and administering insulin and glucagon.

Children’s National Hospital has been selected to participate in a multi-center clinical trial to test the efficacy of the iLet bionic pancreas — a device that automatically regulates blood sugar levels in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

Patients generally manage diabetes by constantly monitoring their blood sugar levels and administering insulin when necessary. Unfortunately, too much insulin can cause hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, which can result in hypoglycemic seizures, coma or rarely, death. Thus, it is extremely important for people with diabetes to regulate their insulin dosages and maintain their blood sugar levels within a range decided by the family and diabetes team.

“The burden of caring for diabetes on a daily basis is grueling,” says Seema Meighan, FNP, a nurse practitioner involved in the upcoming clinical trial. “It is by far one of the most challenging chronic diseases to manage, and requires vigilant participation 100 percent of the time to stay well controlled.”

The iLet bionic pancreas helps patients manage their diabetes by both monitoring blood glucose levels and administering insulin and glucagon — a pancreatic hormone that raises blood sugar levels.

“In a traditional infusion pump, patients only have access to insulin to control glucose levels,” explains Meighan. “This can become problematic when it comes to hypoglycemia. The hope with a bi-hormonal system is that glucagon can be delivered during times that the glucose is low in order to stabilize levels without user interaction.”

Developed at Boston University by Edward Damiano, Ph.D., and Firas El-Khatib, Ph.D., the iLet is a hand-held device about the size of an iPhone but twice as thick, and can easily fit into a pocket. The unit consists of a dual chamber infusion pump that can be configured to deliver only insulin, only glucagon or both hormones. The device uses a wireless glucose sensor on the patient’s body to test blood sugar levels every five minutes. It then determines which hormone is needed and administers it via catheters connected to the patient.

In short-term studies, the iLet was able to maintain blood glucose levels close to normal in both adults and children in carefully controlled environments.

In 2016, the Children’s National Hospital Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, led by diabetologist Fran Cogen, M.D., C.D.C.E.S., was one of several pediatric sites that were selected to participate in pivotal clinical trials to further test the efficacy of the bionic pancreas. In June 2020, the team at Children’s National began enrolling patients to test iLet devices that only deliver insulin. Once these initial studies are completed, the team will perform an additional trial to test iLet devices configured to deliver both insulin and glucagon.

“This trial is important as it represents the first dual chamber pump to manage glucose levels,” says Meighan. “It could potentially change the way we treat diabetes entirely. It represents a hope to our patients and families that one day this disease will have far less of a daily burden than it currently does.”

Currently, there are 18 patients enrolled in the clinical trial. An initial test run on two patients was successfully completed in November 2020. In early January 2021, the first patient was started on the bionic pancreas to begin the randomized controlled study and three additional patients, who completed the screening process, will join the study shortly. The screening and initiation of the study will continue in the remaining patients.

Randi Streisand

Randi Streisand, Ph.D., receives 2020 Richard R. Rubin Award

Randi Streisand

Randi Streisand, Ph.D., is the recipient of the 2020 Richard R. Rubin Award. This national award, sponsored by the American Diabetes Association, recognizes a scientist who has made outstanding, innovative contributions to the study and understanding of the behavioral aspects of diabetes.

Currently, Dr. Streisand is a tenured professor of psychology and pediatrics at The George Washington University School of Medicine and serves as chief of the Division of Psychology & Behavioral Health at Children’s National Hospital. Additionally, she serves as vice-chair for the Institutional Review Board, and provides clinical services for families impacted by diabetes and other health conditions. She is also an active mentor and educator for trainees and early career faculty members regarding research and clinical service.

Throughout her career, Dr. Streisand has received multiple research and training grants, published approximately 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international meetings. She has also been recognized for her mentorship and received awards from Children’s National as well as the Society of Pediatric Psychology. Dr. Streisand’s research is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and focuses on parent-child adjustment to diabetes, and behavioral interventions to promote adjustment, adherence and glycemic control. Her research has included young children through teenagers, and she is currently evaluating the use of a parent coach program to support parents of young children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

Dr. Streisand has served on several editorial boards for journals, serves as a grant reviewer for NIH, and has served in elected positions for professional organizations. She is also a Certified Diabetes Educator.

Children's National Endocrinology and Diabetes Division Stats

2020 at a glance: Endocrinology and Diabetes at Children’s National


The Children’s National Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes is consistently recognized by U.S. News & World Report as one of the top programs in the nation.

US News Badges

Children’s National ranked a top 10 children’s hospital and No. 1 in newborn care nationally by U.S. News

US News Badges

Children’s National Hospital in Washington, D.C., was ranked No. 7 nationally in the U.S. News & World Report 2020-21 Best Children’s Hospitals annual rankings. This marks the fourth straight year Children’s National has made the list, which ranks the top 10 children’s hospitals nationwide.

In addition, its neonatology program, which provides newborn intensive care, ranked No.1 among all children’s hospitals for the fourth year in a row.

For the tenth straight year, Children’s National also ranked in all 10 specialty services, with seven specialties ranked in the top 10.

“Our number one goal is to provide the best care possible to children. Being recognized by U.S. News as one of the best hospitals reflects the strength that comes from putting children and their families first, and we are truly honored,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., president and CEO of Children’s National Hospital.

“This year, the news is especially meaningful, because our teams — like those at hospitals across the country — faced enormous challenges and worked heroically through a global pandemic to deliver excellent care.”

“Even in the midst of a pandemic, children have healthcare needs ranging from routine vaccinations to life-saving surgery and chemotherapy,” said Ben Harder, managing editor and chief of Health Analysis at U.S. News. “The Best Children’s Hospitals rankings are designed to help parents find quality medical care for a sick child and inform families’ conversations with pediatricians.”

The annual rankings are the most comprehensive source of quality-related information on U.S. pediatric hospitals. The rankings recognize the nation’s top 50 pediatric hospitals based on a scoring system developed by U.S. News. The top 10 scorers are awarded a distinction called the Honor Roll.

The bulk of the score for each specialty service is based on quality and outcomes data. The process includes a survey of relevant specialists across the country, who are asked to list hospitals they believe provide the best care for patients with the most complex conditions.

Below are links to the seven Children’s National specialty services that U.S. News ranked in the top 10 nationally:

The other three specialties ranked among the top 50 were cardiology and heart surgery, gastroenterology and gastro-intestinal surgery, and urology.

insulin and syringes

Diabetes clinic helps undocumented children manage their chronic condition

insulin and syringes

A diabetes clinic gives undocumented children with diabetes access to the care they need to maintain their health with this chronic condition.

In 2018, Jennifer Boughton, a social worker at Children’s National Hospital, came up with the idea of starting a diabetes clinic for patients whose immigration status prevented them from qualifying for insurance. The idea came about after undocumented children were arriving in the emergency department with high blood sugar and dangerously elevated ketone levels.

Through donations and the employees, who volunteer their time, Boughton’s idea became a reality. In January of 2019, the diabetes center held its first access clinic. The clinic has been open every three months since then for undocumented children with diabetes.

Flyers for the clinic are sent to local schools and organizations to help recruit patients.

In the first year, the patient volume has quadrupled and the hbA1c levels have decreased for patients who attend.

Read more about the Diabetes Access Clinic here.

 

Nadia Merchant

Working to improve the management of endocrine related conditions

Nadia Merchant

This past fall, Nadia Merchant, M.D., joined Children’s National Hospital as an endocrinologist in the Endocrinology and Diabetes Department. Dr. Merchant received her undergraduate and medical education at Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. She completed her pediatric residency at Wright State Boonshoft School of Medicine. She then completed her genetics residency and pediatric endocrine fellowship at Baylor College of Medicine/Texas Children’s Hospital.

Dr. Merchant was born with acromesomelic dysplasia, a rare genetic disorder, but that hasn’t stopped her from pursuing her medical career. While at Baylor College of Medicine, Dr. Merchant was very active in quality improvement projects, research and organizations that raise awareness of endocrine related conditions. For several years, she was a moderator at Baylor College of Medicine for “From Stress to Strength,” at a course for parents of children with genetic disorders and autism. Dr. Merchant also served as an endocrine fellow representative on the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Endocrinology (SOEn) for the last two years and also served on the committee for a Bone and Mineral special interest group within the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES). During medical school, she worked with Positive Exposure, an organization that uses visual arts to celebrate human diversity for individuals living with genetic, physical, behavioral and intellectual differences.

During the 2019 Endocrine Society Annual Meeting, Dr. Merchant won the Presidential Poster Award for her poster presentation: Assessing Metacarpal Cortical Thickness as a Tool to Evaluate Bone Density Compared to DXA in Osteogenesis Imperfecta a research project assessing whether hand film is an additional tool to detect low bone mineral density in children.

Dr. Nadia Merchant is currently one of the endocrinologists in the multidisciplinary bone health clinic at Children’s National, a clinic dedicated to addressing and improving bone health in children. Dr. Merchant also manages endocrine manifestations in children with rare genetic disorders.

The Endocrinology department at Children’s National is ranked among the best in the nation by “U.S. News & World Report”.

Brynn Marks

Bringing diabetes technology to patients and providers

Brynn Marks

Brynn Marks, M.D., endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital, was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at the age of five years old and knows too well the struggles that may come with managing this chronic condition. After finding the right, knowledgeable provider as a teen, Dr. Marks realized that she wanted to become an endocrinologist and be that resource and support for others with Type 1.

Developments in diabetes technologies, including continuous glucose monitors (CGM) and insulin pumps, hold great promise for improving diabetes control while also improving quality of life for those living with Type 1. However, the pace of development also presents challenges for busy clinicians who must keep up with rapid developments in the field. Dr. Marks is focused on making sure patients and providers have the latest information and training on diabetes technologies with the goal that they can be more effectively used by more people in the real world.

“These diabetes technologies are very important for kids and teens with diabetes because they can help them to live life as normally as possible while affording the freedom they need to just be kids,” says Dr. Marks.

Dr. Marks’ recent research includes a study where she used an app to deliver medical education about diabetes technology. Participants received authentic, case-based scenarios focused on the technologies to help them apply knowledge of these technologies to real-world clinical scenarios involving insulin pumps and CGMs. All of the education was delivered through questions and explanations in an effort to keep the learners engaged with the curriculum. The questions were repeated over 3-4 months to improve learning and long-term knowledge retention. The study showed that knowledge and confidence about these technologies improved and ultimately led to better patient care.

Dr. Marks presented two posters at a recent International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) meeting related to her efforts to make these technologies more accessible:

Experiential Learning in T1D Technology Education: Knowledge of Parents and Clinicians: Dr. Marks enrolled different groups of learners in the diabetes technology curriculum mentioned above, including parents of children with Type 1 diabetes, attending physicians, pediatric endocrine fellows and certified diabetes educators. Results showed minimal difference among those groups in terms of knowledge about the pumps and CGMs. Interestingly, clinicians who had the opportunity to wear the technologies for educational purposes had greater knowledge than clinicians who did not have the same opportunity. Based on these results, Dr. Marks advocated that opportunities to wear pumps and CGMs should be a routine part of education for clinicians working with these technologies.

A Qualitative Analysis of Clinicians’ Experiences Wearing CGM: Dr. Marks explored the reactions of clinicians without diabetes who were given the opportunity to wear continuous glucose monitors for 1 week. Participants reported that the opportunity to wear these technologies improved their knowledge and gave them greater empathy for patients using CGM.

Dr. Marks’ work to date has identified strategies to improve knowledge about insulin pumps and CGM. Moving forward, she will continue to study the best ways to educate parents and clinicians about these diabetes technologies in hopes of improving the day to day lives of the children they care for.

brain network illustration

$2.5M to protect the brain from metabolic insult

brain network illustration

The brain comprises only 2% of the body’s volume, but it uses more than 20% of its energy, which makes this organ particularly vulnerable to changes in metabolism.

More than 30 million Americans have diabetes, with the vast majority having Type 2 disease. Characterized by insulin resistance and persistently high blood sugar levels, poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes has a host of well-recognized complications: compared with the general population, a greatly increased risk of kidney disease, vision loss, heart attacks and strokes and lower limb amputations.

But more recently, says Nathan A. Smith, MS, Ph.D., a principal investigator in Children’s National Research Institute’s Center for Neuroscience Research, another consequence has become increasingly apparent. With increasing insulin resistance comes cognitive damage, a factor that contributes significantly to dementia diagnoses as patients age.

The brain comprises only 2% of the body’s volume, but it uses more than 20% of its energy, Smith explains – which makes this organ particularly vulnerable to changes in metabolism. Type 2 diabetes and even prediabetic changes in glucose metabolism inflict damage upon this organ in mechanisms with dangerous synergy, he adds. Insulin resistance itself stresses brain cells, slowly depriving them of fuel. As blood sugar rises, it also increases inflammation and blocks nitric oxide, which together narrow the brain’s blood vessels while also increasing blood viscosity.

When the brain’s neurons slowly starve, they become increasingly inefficient at doing their job, eventually succumbing to this deprivation. These hits don’t just affect individual cells, Smith adds. They also affect connectivity that spans across the brain, neural networks that are a major focus of his research.

While it’s well established that Type 2 diabetes significantly boosts the risk of cognitive decline, Smith says, it’s been unclear whether this process might be halted or even reversed. It’s this question that forms the basis of a collaborative Frontiers grant, $2.5 million from the National Science Foundation split between his laboratory; the lead institution, Stony Brook University; and Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School.

Smith and colleagues at the three institutions are testing whether changing the brain’s fuel source from glucose to ketones – byproducts from fat metabolism – could potentially save neurons and neural networks over time. Ketones already have shown promise for decades in treating some types of epilepsy, a disease that sometimes stems from an imbalance in neuronal excitation and inhibition. When some patients start on a ketogenic diet – an extreme version of a popular fat-based diet – many can significantly decrease or even stop their seizures, bringing their misfiring brain cells back to health.

Principal Investigator Smith and his laboratory at the Children’s National Research Institute are using experimental models to test whether ketones could protect the brain against the ravages of insulin resistance. They’re looking specifically at interneurons, the inhibitory cells of the brain and the most energy demanding. The team is using a technique known as patch clamping to determine how either insulin resistance or insulin resistance in the presence of ketones affect these cells’ ability to fire.

They’re also looking at how calcium ions migrate in and out of the cells’ membranes, a necessary prerequisite for neurons’ electrical activity. Finally, they’re evaluating whether these potential changes to the cells’ electrophysiological properties in turn change how different parts of the brain communicate with each other, potentially restructuring the networks that are vital to every action this organ performs.

Colleagues at Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, led by Principal Investigator Eva-Maria Ratai, Ph.D.,  will perform parallel work in human subjects. They will use imaging to determine how these two fuel types, glucose or ketones, affect how the brain uses energy and produces the communication molecules known as neurotransmitters. They’re also investigating how these factors might affect the stability of neural networks using techniques that investigate the performance of these networks both while study subjects are at rest and performing a task.

Finally, colleagues at the Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology at Stony Brook University, led by Principal Investigator Lilianne R. Mujica-Parodi, Ph.D., will use results generated at the other two institutions to construct computational models that can accurately predict how the brain will behave under metabolic stress: how it copes when deprived of fuel and whether it might be able to retain healthy function when its cells receive ketones instead of glucose.

Collectively, Smith says, these results could help retain brain function even under glucose restraints. (For this, the research team owes a special thanks to Mujica-Parodi, who assembled the group to answer this important question, thus underscoring the importance of team science, he adds.)

“By supplying an alternate fuel source, we may eventually be able to preserve the brain even in the face of insulin resistance,” Smith says.

regional pediatric endocrinology meeting

Regional pediatric endocrinologists gather at Children’s National

regional pediatric endocrinology meeting

On Nov. 10, 2019, more than 30 pediatric endocrine physicians and nurse practitioners from Washington, D.C., Maryland and Northern Virginia gathered at Children’s National Hospital to discuss the latest in pediatric endocrinology research.

Organized by Paul Kaplowitz, M.D., Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics, this was the third regional pediatric endocrinology meeting since 2012 and the second held at the hospital. “The meetings are a great opportunity for providers to meet regional colleagues who they may communicate with about patients but rarely see face to face,” explains Dr. Kaplowitz.

The providers spent half a day at Children’s National viewing presentations and connecting with their colleagues. Among the presentations was a talk by new Children’s National faculty member Brynn Marks, M.D., MSHPEd, titled, “Medical Education in Diabetes Technologies.”

The presentation highlighted Dr. Marks’ research on how to best teach providers to make optimal use of the information provided by continuous blood glucose monitoring, as well as how to adjust insulin pump settings based on frequent blood glucose testing.

Another notable presentation was by Richard Kahn, Ph.D., recently retired former chief scientific and medical officer at the American Diabetes Association. Dr. Kahn’s talk was titled “Prediabetes: Is it a meaningful diagnosis?”

“This was an excellent talk whose message was that making a diagnosis of ‘prediabetes’ may not be nearly as helpful as we thought, since most patients tests either revert to normal or remain borderline, and there is no treatment or lifestyle change which greatly reduces progression to type 2 diabetes,” says Dr. Kaplowitz.

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Children’s National regional pediatric endocrinology meeting presentations

Welcome from Paul Kaplowitz, M.D., and Children’s National Endocrinology Division Chief Andrew Dauber, M.D.

“Prediabetes: Is it a meaningful diagnosis?”
Richard Kahn, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

“Overlapping genetic architecture of Type 2 diabetes and Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes”
Scott Blackman, M.D., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins Medicine

“Pediatric Pituitary Tumors: What we have learned from the NIH cohort”
Christina Tatsi, M.D., Ph.D., National Institutes of Health

“Medical Education in Diabetes Technologies”
Brynn Marks, M.D., MSHPEd, Children’s National Hospital

“A phenotypic female infant with bilateral palpable gonads”
Cortney Bleach, M.D., Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

“Estimating plasma glucose with the FreeStyle Libre Pro CGM in youth: An accuracy analysis”
Miranda Broadney, M.D., MPH, University of Maryland School of Medicine

“Recruiting for research project on “Arginine-Stimulated Copeptin in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus”
Chelsi Flippo, M.D., Fellow, National Institutes of Health

Marva Moxey-Mims in her office at Children's National.

Kidney disease outcomes differ between severely obese kids vs. adults after bariatric surgery

Marva Moxey-Mims in her office at Children's National.

“We know that bariatric surgery improves markers of kidney health in severely obese adults and adolescents,” says Marva Moxey-Mims, M.D. “This research helps to elucidate possible differences in kidney disease outcomes between children and adults post-surgery.”

Adolescents with Type 2 diabetes experienced more hyperfiltration and earlier attenuation of their elevated urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) after gastric bypass surgery compared with adults. This finding contrasts with adolescents or adults who did not have diabetes prior to surgery, according to research presented Nov. 8, 2019, during the American Society of Nephrology’s Kidney Week 2019, the world’s largest gathering of kidney researchers.

“Findings from this work support a recent policy statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that advocates for increasing severely obese youths’ access to bariatric surgery,” says Marva Moxey-Mims, M.D., Chief of the Division of Nephrology at Children’s National Hospital and a study co-author.  “We know that bariatric surgery improves markers of kidney health in severely obese adults and adolescents. This research helps to elucidate possible differences in kidney disease outcomes between children and adults post-surgery.”

According to the AAP, the prevalence of severe obesity in youth aged 12 to 19 has nearly doubled since 1999. Now, 4.5 million U.S. children are affected by severe obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥35 or ≥120% of the 95th percentile for age and sex.

In a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the surgeon staples the stomach to make it smaller, so people eat less. Then, they attach the lower part of the small intestine in a way that bypasses most of the stomach so the body takes in fewer calories.

The multi-institutional study team examined the health effects of such gastric bypass surgeries by comparing 161 adolescents with 396 adults enrolled in related studies. They compared their estimated glomerular filtration rates by serum creatinine and cystatin C. UACR was also compared at various time periods, up till five years after surgery.

Across the board, adolescents had higher UACR – a key marker for chronic kidney disease – than adults. However, for kids who had Type 2 diabetes prior to surgery, the prevalence of elevated UACR levels dip from 29% pre-surgery to 6% one year post-surgery. By contrast, adults who had diabetes prior to surgery and elevated UACR did not see a significant reduction in UACR until five years post-surgery.

While hyperfiltration prevalence was similar in study participants who did not have Type 2 diabetes, adolescents who had Type 2 diabetes prior to surgery had an increased prevalence of hyperfiltration for the duration of the study period.

Financial support for research described in this post was provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

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ASN Kidney Week 2019 presentation

Five-year kidney outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents compared with adults
Friday, Nov. 8, 2019, 10 a.m. to noon (EST)
Petter Bjornstad, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Todd Jenkins, Edward Nehus and Mark Mitsnefes, all of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital; Marva M. Moxey-Mims, Children’s National Hospital; and Thomas H. Inge, Children’s Hospital Colorado.

 

Children’s National ranked No. 6 overall and No. 1 for newborn care by U.S. News

Children’s National in Washington, D.C., is the nation’s No. 6 children’s hospital and, for the third year in a row, its neonatology program is No.1 among all children’s hospitals providing newborn intensive care, according to the U.S. News Best Children’s Hospitals annual rankings for 2019-20.

This is also the third year in a row that Children’s National has been in the top 10 of these national rankings. It is the ninth straight year it has ranked in all 10 specialty services, with five specialty service areas ranked among the top 10.

“I’m proud that our rankings continue to cement our standing as among the best children’s hospitals in the nation,” says Kurt Newman, M.D., President and CEO for Children’s National. “In addition to these service lines, today’s recognition honors countless specialists and support staff who provide unparalleled, multidisciplinary patient care. Quality care is a function of every team member performing their role well, so I credit every member of the Children’s National team for this continued high performance.”

The annual rankings recognize the nation’s top 50 pediatric facilities based on a scoring system developed by U.S. News. The top 10 scorers are awarded a distinction called the Honor Roll.

“The top 10 pediatric centers on this year’s Best Children’s Hospitals Honor Roll deliver outstanding care across a range of specialties and deserve to be nationally recognized,” says Ben Harder, chief of health analysis at U.S. News. “According to our analysis, these Honor Roll hospitals provide state-of-the-art medical expertise to children with rare or complex conditions. Their rankings reflect U.S. News’ assessment of their commitment to providing high-quality, compassionate care to young patients and their families day in and day out.”

The bulk of the score for each specialty is based on quality and outcomes data. The process also includes a survey of relevant specialists across the country, who are asked to list hospitals they believe provide the best care for patients with challenging conditions.

Below are links to the five specialty services that U.S. News ranked in the top 10 nationally:

The other five specialties ranked among the top 50 were cardiology and heart surgery, diabetes and endocrinology, gastroenterology and gastro-intestinal surgery, orthopedics, and urology.

boy on a treadmil

Therapeutic targets in African-American youth with type 2 diabetes

boy on a treadmil

Ongoing research is helping to define the broad spectrum and multi-faceted nature of type 2 diabetes in terms of its presentation, its rapidity of progression and its underlying genetic susceptibilities. In a recent study of 8,980 adults published in The Lancet, diabetes was further classified into five clusters, ranging from insulin-deficient, typically referred to as type 1, to groups of patients with primary insulin-resistance, traditionally classified as type 2 diabetes, with the caveat that each cluster had a distinct risk profile for disease progression and risk for diabetes complications.

Moreover, investigators have recently demonstrated, through the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Consortium, that youth compared to adults with early type 2 diabetes have greater insulin resistance relative to insulin secretion. Understanding variances on the diabetes spectrum, especially as it relates to risk for disease progression in youth, helps researchers develop targeted therapies that may help reduce complications and the burden of this chronic disease.

Ongoing research

Stephanie Chung, M.B.B.S., a pediatric endocrinologist at the National Institutes of Health and an adjunct assistant professor of pediatrics at Children’s National, is one researcher who hopes to use this knowledge to transform public health outcomes. Dr. Chung is studying how teens and young adults with severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) respond to new treatment, paired with lifestyle-based interventions.

Here is a Q&A with Dr. Chung about her latest research:

Tell Innovation District readers more about your diabetes research. How has your previous research influenced this study?

My research and publications are focused on understanding how genes, environment and lifestyle factors contribute to the pathology of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance in populations of African descent and on identifying more effective screening and treatment options.

We know that African-American youth with type 2 diabetes have the highest complication and treatment failure rates among minority youth. However, the reasons underlying this health disparity are still not fully understood. Metformin, the only approved oral diabetes treatment for youth with type 2 diabetes, works less than half of the time in African-American youth. Although new evidence suggests that gut bacteria and genetics may influence the efficacy of metformin, this data is insufficient in African-American youth.

What is your goal with this diabetes clinical study?

The primary objective of this new study, entitled Therapeutic Targets in African-American Youth with Type 2 Diabetes, is to compare the combination of metformin and liraglutide versus metformin alone to reduce excess glucose produced by the liver in African-American youth with type 2 diabetes.

Additional objectives will evaluate the mechanism of action in the liver of these two agents and the influence of genetics and gut bacteria. This project brings together the research expertise of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Human Genome Research Institute and the Children’s National.

Do you envision this type of dual therapy, a combination of drugs and lifestyle interventions, will serve as a bridge to optimal insulin function?

While metformin, diet and lifestyle changes remain the mainstay of diabetes treatment, our study will evaluate whether this combination regimen could help to slow the progression of type 2 diabetes in African American youth. Our ultimate goal is the development of new precision medicine treatment options that can address the disparities in outcomes for African-American youth with type 2 diabetes.

What lessons do you see participants learning as they progress through the trial?

Our patients and their families are equal partners in care. Our comprehensive team of doctors, nurses, dietitians and counselors work closely with the patients and their families to help empower them to take charge of managing their diabetes. We teach them skills that include regularly monitoring their blood glucose levels and understanding how their activity and foods affect these levels. They are coached on making healthy food choices and incorporating exercise into their daily lives.

How do you teach children and teens about how their body responds to different foods?

This education starts as soon as participants enter the study. While patients are at the NIH for the inpatient study, we provide them with meals containing different ratios of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and help them to analyze how their blood sugar responds to these levels, both before and after they take the medication. This type of education is important since participants will also have to monitor their blood sugar twice a day at home during the study. Most of the time, we use real-life situations as teaching moments. For example, if a participant had pizza for dinner, we will discuss with them why their blood sugar spiked and suggest alternative food choices. We provide this type of coaching every week. I often joke that after three months they become tired of hearing from us. But one of the strengths of this study is that participants receive personalized feedback that enables them to make healthy food choices for the rest of their life.

Can you tell us more about targeted food choices for teens?

A very enlightening procedure that we conduct on all of our study participants is measuring their basal metabolic rate (energy expenditure at rest). We show them how many calories they need to consume each day to maintain their body’s normal functions and compare that number with an estimate of how many calories they usually consume in a day. For many participants this is the first time that they have insight into the reasons for their weight gain.

How does this lab work help with meal planning?

After we create a participant’s metabolic chart we make food plans that support their lifestyle and caloric needs and are realistic to follow. For example, a 2,000 calorie per day diet can be separated into 400 calories for breakfast, 600 calories for lunch, 200 calories for snack and 800 calories for dinner.

How do you envision personalizing the field of diabetes research and treatment?

A precision medicine approach to type 2 diabetes will help us to better explore if and how factors like genes, environment and lifestyle impact insulin and glucose metabolism in populations with significant treatment outcomes disparities. With this approach we hope to uncover novel targeted treatment and prevention strategies that demonstrate more efficacy and cost-efficiency than current treatment approaches for high-risk populations.

Where can people learn more about the trial?

Learn more about the study by watching this informational video. If you’re interested in joining the study, please contact the NIH Office of Clinical Trial Recruitment at 866-999-1116.

child measuring belly with tape measure

Children’s obesity research team presents compelling new findings

child measuring belly with tape measure

Faculty from Children’s National Health System’s Department of Psychology & Behavioral Health set out to learn if any demographic, psychiatric, or cognitive factors play a role in determining if an adolescent should be eligible for bariatric surgery, and what their weight loss outcomes might be. Presenting at the Society for Pediatric Psychology Annual Conference earlier this month, a group of researchers, fellows and clinicians, including surgeons from Children’s National showcased their findings. One of the posters developed by Meredith Rose, LGSW, ML, who works as an interventionist on a Children’s National clinical research team, received special recognition in the Obesity Special Interest Group category.

One presentation reported on a total of 222 pediatric patients with severe obesity, which is defined as 120 percent of the 95th percentile for Body Mass Index. Mean age of the participants was 16 years of age, 71 percent were female and 80 percent where Hispanic or non-White. As part of their preparation for surgery, all patients were required to complete a pre-bariatric surgery psychological evaluation, including a clinical interview and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS-PL) screening. The studies by the Children’s teams were based on a medical record review of the pre-screening information. Adolescents being evaluated for surgery had high rates of mental health diagnoses, particularly anxiety and depression, but also included Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, eating disorders, and intellectual disability.

Another Children’s presentation at the conference looked at weight loss outcomes for adolescents based on IQ and intellectual disability. Overall, neither Full Scale IQ from the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale – 2nd edition, nor the presence of an intellectual disability predicted weight loss following surgery.

“The sum of our research found that kids do really well with surgery,” said Eleanor Mackey, PhD, assistant professor of psychology and behavioral health. “Adolescents, regardless of the presence of intellectual disability areas are likely to lose a significant amount of weight following surgery,” added Dr. Mackey.

“This is a particularly important fact to note because many programs and insurers restrict weight loss surgery to ‘perfect’ candidates, while these data points demonstrate that our institution does not offer or deny surgery on the basis of any cognitive characteristics,” says Evan P. Nadler, M.D., associate professor of surgery and pediatrics. “Without giving these kids a chance with surgery, we know they face a lifetime of obesity, as no other intervention has shown to work long-term in this patient population. Our research should empower psychologists and physicians to feel more confident recommending bariatric surgery for children who have exhausted all other weight loss options.”

The research team concluded that examining how individual factors, such as intellectual disability, psychiatric diagnoses, and demographic factors are associated with the surgery process is essential to ensuring adequate and empirically supported guidelines for referral for, and provision of bariatric surgery in adolescents. Next steps by the team will include looking into additional indicators of health improvement, like glucose tolerance, quality of life, or other lab values, to continue evaluating the benefits of surgery for this population.

ER Nurse

An unexpected discovery in a central line

ER Nurse

About a year and a half ago, a 6-year-old boy arrived at Children’s Emergency Department after accidently removing his own gastrointestinal feeding tube. He wasn’t a stranger to Children’s National Health System: This young patient had spent plenty of time at the hospital since birth. Diagnosed in infancy with an intestinal pseudo-obstruction, a rare condition in which his bowels acted as if there were a blockage even though one was not present, parts of his intestine died and had been removed through multiple surgeries.

Because of this issue and associated health problems, at 4 years old he had a central line placed in a large vein that leads to his heart. That replaced other central lines placed in his neck earlier after those repeatedly broke. This latest central line in his chest als0 had frequent breaks. It also had become infected with multidrug-resistant Klebsiella bacteria two years before he was treated at Children’s National for inadvertently removing his feeding tube.

On that day, he seemed otherwise well. His exam was relatively unremarkable, except for a small leak in his central line and a slight fever. Those findings triggered cultures taken both from blood flowing through his central line and the surrounding skin.

“No one expected him to grow anything from these cultures, especially from a child who looked so healthy,” explains Madan Kumar, a fellow in Children’s division of Pediatric Infectious Disease and a member of the child’s care team. But a mold grew prolifically. Further investigation from a sample sent to the National Institutes of Health showed that it was a relatively new species known as Mucor velutinosus.

Because such an infection had never been reported in a child whose immune system wasn’t extremely compromised from cancer, Kumar and team decided to publish a case report. The study appeared online Jan. 24, 2018, in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

Kumar notes that this patient faced myriad challenges. Not only did he have a central line, but the line also had numerous problems, necessitating fixes that could increase the chance of infection. Additionally, because of his intestinal issues, he had a chronic problem with malabsorption of nutrients. Patients with this issue often are treated liberally with antibiotics. Although this intervention can kill “bad” bacteria that can cause an infection, they also knock out “good” bacteria that keep other microorganisms – like fungi – in check. On top of all of this, the patient was receiving a nutrient-rich formula in his central line to boost his caloric intake, yet another factor associated with infections.

Patients who develop this specific fungal infection are overwhelmingly adults who are immunocompromised, Kumar explains, including those with diabetes, transplant recipients, patients with cancer and those who have abnormally low concentrations of immune cells called neutrophils in their blood. The only children who tend to get this infection are preterm infants of very low birth weight who haven’t yet developed a robust immune response.

Because there was only one other published case report about a child with M. velutinosus – a 1-year-old with brain cancer who had undergone a bone marrow transplant – Kumar notes that he and colleagues were at a loss as to how best to treat their patient. “There’s a paucity of literature on what to do in a case like this,” he says.

Fortunately, the treatment they selected was successful. As soon as the cultures came back positive for this mold, the patient went on a three-week course of an antifungal drug known as amphotericin B. Surgeons also removed his infected central line and placed a new one. These efforts cured the patient’s infection and prevented it from spreading and potentially causing the multi-organ failure associated with these types of infections.

This case taught Kumar and colleagues quite a bit – knowledge that they wanted to share by publishing the case report. For example, it reinforces the importance of central line care. It also highlights the value of thoroughly investigating potential problems in a patient with risk factors, even one who appears otherwise healthy.

Finally, Kumar adds, the case emphasizes the importance of good antibiotic stewardship, which can help prevent patients from developing sometimes deadly secondary infections like this one. “This is not an organism that you see growing in a 6-year-old very often,” he says. “The fact that we saw it here speaks to the need to be judicious with broad-spectrum antibiotics so that we have a number of therapeutic options should we see unusual cases like this one.”

banner year

2017: A banner year for innovation at Children’s National

banner year

In 2017, clinicians and research faculty working at Children’s National Health System published more than 850 research articles about a wide array of topics. A multidisciplinary Children’s Research Institute review group selected the top 10 articles for the calendar year considering, among other factors, work published in high-impact academic journals.

“This year’s honorees showcase how our multidisciplinary institutes serve as vehicles to bring together Children’s specialists in cross-cutting research and clinical collaborations,” says Mark L. Batshaw, M.D., Physician-in-Chief and Chief Academic Officer at Children’s National. “We’re honored that the National Institutes of Health and other funders have provided millions in awards that help to ensure that these important research projects continue.”

The published papers explain research that includes using imaging to describe the topography of the developing brains of infants with congenital heart disease, how high levels of iron may contribute to neural tube defects and using an incisionless surgery method to successfully treat osteoid osteoma. The top 10 Children’s papers:

Read the complete list.

Dr. Batshaw’s announcement comes on the eve of Research and Education Week 2018 at Children’s National, a weeklong event that begins April 16, 2018. This year’s theme, “Diversity powers innovation,” underscores the cross-cutting nature of Children’s research that aims to transform pediatric care.

Maureen Monaghan

Using text messages and telemedicine to improve diabetes self-management

Maureen Monaghan

Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.E., clinical psychologist and certified diabetes educator in the Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes Program at Children’s National Health System, awarded nearly $1.6 million grant from American Diabetes Association.

Adolescents and young adults ages 17-22 with Type 1 diabetes are at high risk for negative health outcomes. If fact, some studies show that less than 20 percent of patients in this population meet targets for glycemic control, and visits to the Emergency Department for acute complications like diabetic ketoacidosis peak around the same age.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) awarded Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.E., clinical psychologist and certified diabetes educator in the Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes Program at Children’s National Health System, nearly $1.6 million to evaluate an innovative behavioral intervention to improve patient-provider communication, teach and help patients maintain self-care and self-advocacy skills and ultimately prepare young adults for transition into adult diabetes care, limiting the negative adverse outcomes that are commonly seen in adulthood.

Dr. Monaghan is the first psychologist funded through the ADA’s Pathway to Stop Diabetes program, which awards six annual research grants designed to spur breakthroughs in fundamental diabetes science, technology, diabetes care and potential cures. Dr. Monaghan received the Accelerator Award, given to diabetes researchers early in their careers, which will assist her in leading a behavioral science project titled, “Improving Health Communication During the Transition from Pediatric to Adult Diabetes Care.”

“Behavior is such a key component in diabetes care, and it’s wonderful that the American Diabetes Association is invested in promoting healthy behaviors,” says Dr. Monaghan. “I’m excited to address psychosocial complications of diabetes and take a closer look at how supporting positive health behavior during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to a reduction in medical complications down the road.”

During the five year study, Dr. Monaghan will recruit patients ages 17-22 and follow their care at Children’s National through their first visit with an adult endocrinologist. Her team will assess participants’ ability to communicate with providers, including their willingness to disclose diabetes-related concerns, share potentially risky behaviors like drinking alcohol and take proactive steps to monitor and regularly review glucose data.

“The period of transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care represents a particularly risky time. Patients are going through major life changes, such as starting new jobs, attending college, moving out of their parents’ homes and ultimately managing care more independently,” says Dr. Monaghan. “Behavioral intervention can be effective at any age, but we are hopeful that we can substantially help youth during this time of transition when they are losing many of their safety nets.”

Study leaders will help participants download glucose device management tools onto their smartphones and explain how to upload information from patients’ diabetes devices into the system. Participants will then learn how to review the data and quickly spot issues for intervention or follow-up with their health care provider.

Patients also will participate in behavioral telemedicine visits from the convenience of their own homes, and receive text messages giving them reminders about self-care and educational information, such as “Going out with your friends tonight? Make sure you check your glucose level before you drive.”

At the study’s conclusion, Dr. Monaghan anticipates seeing improvements in psychosocial indicators, mood and transition readiness, as well as improved diabetes self-management and engagement in adult medicine.