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blood glucose monitoring system

Patterns of continuous glucose monitoring use in young children after T1D diagnosis

blood glucose monitoring system

The findings suggest that, when clinically appropriate, continuous glucose monitoring initiation near or at the time of diagnosis benefits glycemic outcomes in young children when followed by sustained use.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a blood glucose monitoring device worn on the body that is linked to positive glycemic outcomes in people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, very little research has examined CGM use and glycemic outcomes in young children, particularly those newly diagnosed with T1D.

A new Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics study led by Randi Streisand, Ph.D., C.D.C.E.S., Chief of Psychology and Behavioral Health at Children’s National Hospital, and others identified four meaningful trajectories of CGM use among young children across 18-months post-T1D diagnosis: those who “always” used CGM; those who got on CGM later but stayed on it (“late/stable”); those who used CGM inconsistently; and those who “never” used CGM. The investigators conducted a study of 157 parents of young children (1-6 years) newly diagnosed with T1D who enrolled in a behavioral intervention.

Importantly, the authors found that those with private insurance were more likely than those with only public insurance to be in the “always” and “late/stable” groups (as opposed to the “never” group). Those in the “always” and “late/stable” groups also had better glycemic outcomes than those in the “never group” at 18-months post-T1D diagnosis.

“This research highlights that insurance type can be a barrier to accessing CGM,” Dr. Streisand noted. “Further, this is one of the first studies, among newly diagnosed young children, to show that CGM initiation at diagnosis or near diagnosis followed by sustained use is associated with better glycemic outcomes compared to never initiating CGM, supporting findings from other studies conducted with older youth.”

The findings inform clinical care with patients as it suggests that, when clinically appropriate, CGM initiation near or at the time of diagnosis benefits glycemic outcomes in young children when followed by sustained use. This is the only study to examine patterns of CGM use among 1-6-year-old children newly diagnosed with T1D over the first 18-months post-diagnosis.

“It was exciting to find differences in glycemic outcomes based on CGM initiation and use in this unique population,” Dr. Streisand said. However, the authors concluded that, given the health benefits of CGM, further exploration of barriers to CGM access and use among some families is needed.

In addition to Dr. Streisand, other Children’s National co-authors include Brynn Marks, M.D., M.S. HPEd.; Carrie Tully, Ph.D.Maureen Monaghan, Ph.D., C.D.E. , and Christine Wang, Ph.D.

vials and needles

Study examines severity of COVID-19 on kids with Type 1 diabetes

vials and needles

A new study published in the Journal of Diabetes, found that although nearly 80% of youth with Type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 infection are managed at home, youth from racial and ethnic minority groups – those with higher hemoglobin A1c values – and those with public insurance are at increased risk for hospitalization.

In a new study published in the Journal of Diabetes, researchers found that although nearly 80% of youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and COVID-19 infection are managed at home, youth from racial and ethnic minority groups – those with higher hemoglobin A1c values – and those with public insurance are at increased risk for hospitalization. Most hospitalizations among these youth were related to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (72%) and 86% of youth hospitalized had an A1c value over 9%. The increased risk for DKA among racial and ethnic minority groups and publicly insured youth in this study is indicative of disparities in T1D outcomes and aligns with other research findings both before and during the pandemic.

Adults with certain underlying medical conditions, like diabetes, are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Though there are limited data on youth with T1D who have been infected with COVID-19, viral infections can make it harder to control blood glucose levels. If not properly managed, infections may lead to DKA, a serious life-threatening condition where the body converts fat instead of sugar into energy, causing ketones to build up in the blood and acid levels to rise.

“There is still more to learn about COVID-19 and how it affects children with diabetes and other underlying medical conditions,” said Brynn Marks, M.D., MS-HPEd, pediatric endocrinologist at Children’s National Hospital and one of the study’s co-authors. “We are hopeful that this latest data will emphasize the importance of optimizing glycemic control and give physicians and families more information about the virus and T1D so that severe illness and hospitalizations can possibly be prevented.”

In April 2020, the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative, along with endocrinology clinics across the U.S., formed a COVID-19 clinical registry to better understand symptoms and outcomes of patients with T1D who also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 46 centers nationwide, including Children’s National Hospital, submitted data to this novel registry of 266 youth under the age of 19 with previously established T1D and laboratory confirmed COVID-19.

The study found that nearly 80% of youth with T1D and known COVID-19 infection were cared for at home without any adverse outcomes. It is also important to note that COVID-19 was incidentally discovered in 16% of hospitalized youth admitted for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 or T1D (e.g. urological procedures, psychiatric admissions). However, the data revealed a disproportionate rate of hospitalizations and DKA among racial and ethnic minority groups, children who were publicly insured and those with higher A1c. Out of the 266 patients, 72% of the 61 patients were hospitalized due to DKA. An overwhelming majority (82%) of hospitalized patients had an A1c value greater than 9%. More than 40% of non-Hispanic Black youth in the study were hospitalized as compared to 14% of non-Hispanic white youth. Researchers also noted that those patients with public insurance were less likely to use insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors, emphasizing the continued need to improve more access to diabetes technologies.

“Diabetes technology has advanced rapidly in the last decade and access to insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors is improving, however these technological advances are perpetuating pre-existing disparities in T1D care and outcomes,” Dr. Marks said. “The data is clear and there is a pressing need to act to promote optimal care for all people with T1D.”

Recently, Dr. Marks and the Children’s National Diabetes team became official members of the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Collaborative. The team looks forward to using the opportunity to improve diabetes care both here at Children’s National and across the country.

 

PAS Logo

Children’s National participants share their expertise at PAS meeting

PAS Logo

The 2021 Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) Virtual meeting hosted live-streamed events, on-demand sessions with live Q+A, a virtual exhibit hall, poster presentations and networking events that attracted pediatricians and healthcare providers worldwide. Among the physician-scientists, there were over 20 Children’s National Hospital-affiliated participants at this year’s meeting, adding to the conversation of pediatric research in specialty and sub-specialty areas.

Children’s National experts covered a range of topics, including heart disease, neurology, abnormal glycemia in newborns and antibiotic use in hospitalized children.

The “Neurological Implications of Abnormal Glycemia in Neonatal Encephalopathy and Prematurity” was a hot topic symposium presented by a panel of experts, including Sudeepta Basu, M.B.B.S., M.S., neonatologist at Children’s National.

The experts addressed the importance of recognizing early blood glucose disturbances in newborns with encephalopathy following birth asphyxia and its likely impact on brain injury and long-term outcomes. Although whole body cooling for newborns with encephalopathy after birth asphyxia is now standard of care in most advanced centers like Children’s National, many newborns still die or have neurological impairments. Dr. Basu emphasized on the need of continued advances in newer therapies and optimizing intensive care support for these vulnerable newborns immediately after birth. Dr. Basu’s presentation focused on the association of not only low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) but also high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) with abnormal motor, visual and intellectual outcomes in surviving newborns.

“Recognizing the problem is the first step for further advancement,” Dr. Basu said. “The scientific community needs to recognize the importance of early glucose status as an early marker for disease severity and risk of brain injury.” To sum up, Dr. Basu drew attention to recent newborn resuscitation guidelines from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), which recommends close monitoring of blood glucose levels and optimizing supportive care to maintain it within normal range. Dedicated clinical trials are the need of the hour to guide what are “normal” glucose levels in newborns with encephalopathy and what treatment options are most beneficial.

Rana F. Hamdy, M.D., M.P.H., M.S.C.E., director of the Children’s National Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, delved into the increased number of children receiving care for acute conditions – like acute respiratory tract infections – from urgent care centers and direct-to-consumer (DTC) telemedicine companies during her session “Implementing Antibiotic Stewardship in Telemedicine and Urgent Care Settings.”

Telemedicine, in this case, refers to DTC telemedicine companies—not to be confused with the telemedicine established with primary care providers, like the services provided by Children’s National.

There has been little research focused on promoting good antibiotic stewardship in urgent care settings that tend to overprescribe antibiotics compared to a primary care setting. In addition to her work focusing on improving antimicrobial use within Children’s National, Dr. Hamdy has led collaborative quality improvement work nationally in both the pediatric urgent care and DTC telemedicine settings.

“What we’ve learned from our work with the DTC telemedicine setting is that leadership commitment coming from the company is a necessary core element,” Dr. Hamdy said. “There may be unique opportunities in the telemedicine setting to employ the home-grown computer systems for antimicrobial stewardship interventions, for example, incorporating clinical decision support or feedback reports into the electronic health record systems or displaying a commitment letter in the virtual waiting room.”

In the urgent care setting, Dr. Hamdy’s team recruited approximately 150 pediatric urgent care providers to participate in the national quality improvement initiative. Communication training modules for pediatric urgent care providers with scripted language for target infectious conditions — acute otitis media, pharyngitis and otitis media with effusion — were among the successful intervention approaches that led to improved appropriate antibiotic prescribing practices, according to her team’s findings.

“Understanding the prescribing practices in the urgent care setting is important to knowing where and how to focus on target conditions and to be able to support with education and resources,” Dr. Hamdy said. “And understanding the perceived barriers to judicious antibiotic prescribing can help to identify the highest yield interventions.”

This also reflects the approach taken by the outpatient antibiotic stewardship team at the Children’s National Goldberg Center, led by Ariella Slovin, M.D., primary care pediatrics provider at Children’s National Hospital. Dr. Slovin’s oral abstract entitled “Antibiotic Prescribing Via Telemedicine in the Time of COVID-19,” examined the effect that a shift to telemedicine due to the COVID-19 pandemic had on antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections. Overall, her team found a decrease in the proportion of acute respiratory tract infections prescribed antibiotics and concluded that the shift to telemedicine did not adversely affect judicious antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections.

Other participants from Children’s National included: Taeun Chang, M.D.; Yuan-Chiao Lu, Ph.D.; Chidiogo Anyigbo, M.D., M.P.H.; Panagiotis Kratimenos, M.D.; Sudeepta Basu, M.B.B.S., M.S.; Ashraf Harahsheh, M.D., F.A.C.C., F.A.A.P.; Rana F. Hamdy, M.D., M.P.H., M.S.C.E.; John Idso, M.D.; Michael Shoykhet, M.D., Ph.D.; Monika Goyal, M.D.; Ioannis Koutroulis, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A.; Josepheen De Asis-Cruz, M.D., Ph.D.; Asad Bandealy, M.D., M.P.H.; Priti Bhansali, M.D.; Sabah Iqbal, M.D.; Kavita Parikh, M.D.; Shilpa Patel, M.D.; Cara Lichtenstein, M.D.

To view the PAS phase I mini session list and the various areas of expertise at Children’s National, visit: https://innovationdistrict.childrensnational.org/childrens-national-hospital-at-the-2021-pediatric-academic-societies-meeting/

The PAS virtual conference phase II starts on Monday, May 10 and it goes through Friday, June 4. Those interested in attending may still register for phase II here: http://2021.pas-meeting.org/registration/

regional pediatric endocrinology meeting

Regional pediatric endocrinologists gather at Children’s National

regional pediatric endocrinology meeting

On Nov. 10, 2019, more than 30 pediatric endocrine physicians and nurse practitioners from Washington, D.C., Maryland and Northern Virginia gathered at Children’s National Hospital to discuss the latest in pediatric endocrinology research.

Organized by Paul Kaplowitz, M.D., Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics, this was the third regional pediatric endocrinology meeting since 2012 and the second held at the hospital. “The meetings are a great opportunity for providers to meet regional colleagues who they may communicate with about patients but rarely see face to face,” explains Dr. Kaplowitz.

The providers spent half a day at Children’s National viewing presentations and connecting with their colleagues. Among the presentations was a talk by new Children’s National faculty member Brynn Marks, M.D., MSHPEd, titled, “Medical Education in Diabetes Technologies.”

The presentation highlighted Dr. Marks’ research on how to best teach providers to make optimal use of the information provided by continuous blood glucose monitoring, as well as how to adjust insulin pump settings based on frequent blood glucose testing.

Another notable presentation was by Richard Kahn, Ph.D., recently retired former chief scientific and medical officer at the American Diabetes Association. Dr. Kahn’s talk was titled “Prediabetes: Is it a meaningful diagnosis?”

“This was an excellent talk whose message was that making a diagnosis of ‘prediabetes’ may not be nearly as helpful as we thought, since most patients tests either revert to normal or remain borderline, and there is no treatment or lifestyle change which greatly reduces progression to type 2 diabetes,” says Dr. Kaplowitz.

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Children’s National regional pediatric endocrinology meeting presentations

Welcome from Paul Kaplowitz, M.D., and Children’s National Endocrinology Division Chief Andrew Dauber, M.D.

“Prediabetes: Is it a meaningful diagnosis?”
Richard Kahn, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

“Overlapping genetic architecture of Type 2 diabetes and Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes”
Scott Blackman, M.D., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins Medicine

“Pediatric Pituitary Tumors: What we have learned from the NIH cohort”
Christina Tatsi, M.D., Ph.D., National Institutes of Health

“Medical Education in Diabetes Technologies”
Brynn Marks, M.D., MSHPEd, Children’s National Hospital

“A phenotypic female infant with bilateral palpable gonads”
Cortney Bleach, M.D., Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

“Estimating plasma glucose with the FreeStyle Libre Pro CGM in youth: An accuracy analysis”
Miranda Broadney, M.D., MPH, University of Maryland School of Medicine

“Recruiting for research project on “Arginine-Stimulated Copeptin in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus”
Chelsi Flippo, M.D., Fellow, National Institutes of Health