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Jeffrey Dome

The impact of surveillance imaging to detect relapse in Wilms tumor patients

Jeffrey Dome

Dr. Jeffrey Dome, M.D., Ph.D., vice president, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders.

The Children’s Oncology Group published an article in the Journal of Clinical Oncology looking at the impact that surveillance imaging has on patients with Wilms tumor (WT), the most common kidney cancer in children.

Despite the risks and costs, the use of computed tomography (CT) for routine surveillance to detect recurrence in patients with WT has increased in recent years. The rationale for using CT scans rather than chest x-rays (CXR) and abdominal ultrasounds (US) is that CT scans are more sensitive, thereby enabling recurrences to be detected earlier.

In this study, led by Jeffrey S. Dome, M.D., Ph.D, vice president of the Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders at Children’s National Health System, researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in the fifth National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS-5) who experienced relapse to determine if relapse detection with CT scan correlates with improved overall survival compared with relapse detection by CXR or abdominal US.

A total of 281 patients with favorable-histology WT (FHWT) were included in the analysis. The key findings of the study were that:

  • Among patients with relapse after completion of therapy, outcome was improved in patients whose relapse was detected by surveillance imaging rather after signs and symptoms developed.
  • A higher disease burden at relapse, defined by the diameter of the relapsed tumor and the number of sites of relapse, was associated with inferior survival.
  • Relapses detected by CT scan were detected earlier and were smaller on average than relapses detected by CXR or US.
  • However, there was no difference in survival between patients whose relapse was detected by CT versus CXR or US.

An analysis of radiation exposure levels showed that surveillance regimes including CT scans have about seven times the radiation exposure compared to regimens including only CXR and US. Moreover, the cost to detect each recurrence reduced by 50 percent when CXR and US are used for surveillance.

“The results of this study will be practice changing,” said Dr. Dome, one of the doctors leading the clinical trial. “The extra sensitivity that CT scans provide compared to CXR and US do not translate to improved survival and are associated with the downsides of extra radiation exposure, cost and false-positive results that can lead to unnecessary stress and medical interventions,” he added. “Although counter-intuitive, the more sensitive technology is not necessarily better for patients.”

In conclusion, the doctors found that the elimination of CT scans from surveillance programs for unilateral favorable histology Wilms tumor is unlikely to compromise survival. However, it could result in substantially less radiation exposure and lower health care costs. Overall, the risk-benefit ratio associated with imaging modalities should be considered and formally studied for all pediatric cancers.

Learn more about this research in a podcast from the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Affiliations

Elizabeth A. Mullen, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA; Yueh-Yun Chi and Emily Hibbitts, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; James R. Anderson, Merck Research Laboratories, North Wales, PA; Katarina J. Steacy, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD; James I. Geller, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Centre, Cincinnati, OH; Daniel M. Green, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; Geetika Khanna, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; Marcio H. Malogolowkin, University of California at Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA; Paul E. Grundy, Stollery Children’s Hospital, University of Alberta, Alberta; Conrad V. Fernandez, University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; and Jeffrey S. Dome, Children’s National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, D.C.

Baby in the NICU

Reducing harm, improving quality in the NICU

Baby in the NICU

American health care is some of the most expensive in the world. To help make it more affordable, numerous efforts in all areas of medicine – from cancer care to primary care to specialized pediatrics – are focused on finding ways to improve quality and patient safety while also cutting costs.

About half a million babies born in the United States – or 10 percent to 15 percent of U.S. births – end up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), most due to prematurity and very low birth weights. These vulnerable babies often need respiratory support in the form of a ventilator, which supplies oxygen to their lungs with a plastic endotracheal tube (ETT).

The typical care for these infants often involves frequent X-rays to verify the proper position of the tube. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics has counseled health care providers that ordering a daily chest X-ray simply to verify positioning of the ETT ratchets up costs without improving patient safety.

A quality-improvement initiative by Children’s National Health System’s NICU finds that these chest X-rays can be performed just twice weekly, lessening the chances of a breathing tube popping out accidentally, reducing infants’ exposure to radiation and saving an estimated $1.6 million per year.

“The new Children’s National protocol reduced the rate of chest X-rays per patient day without increasing the rate of unintended extubations,” says Michelande Ridoré, M.S., program lead in Children’s division of neonatology, who presented the research during the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) national conference. “That not only helps to improve patient safety – for newborns who are admitted to the NICU for longer periods, there is the additional benefit of providing significant savings to the health care system.”

Children’s NICU staff assessed how many chest X-rays were being performed per patient day before and after the protocol change, which applied to all intubated newborns in the NICU whose health condition was stable. Newborns had been undergoing a median of 0.45 chest X-rays per patient day. After the quality improvement project, that figure dropped to 0.23 chest X-rays per patient day.

When the project started in July 2015, the NICU’s monthly X-ray expenditure was $289,520. By the end of 2015, that monthly X-ray spend had fallen to $159,424 – resulting in nearly $1.6 million in annual savings.

The more restrictive strategy for ordering chest X-rays was a core component of a broader quality improvement effort aimed at lowering the number of unplanned extubations, which represent the fourth most common complication experienced by newborns in the nation’s NICUs.

“When you reduce the frequency of patients in the unit being moved, you decrease the chances of the breathing tube coming out accidentally,” Ridoré says. “By reducing unplanned extubations in the NICU, we can improve overall clinical outcomes, reduce length of stay, lower costs and improve patient satisfaction.”

When a breathing tube is accidentally dislodged, newborns can experience hypoxia (oxygen deficiency), abnormally high carbon dioxide levels in the blood, trauma to their airway, intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding into the fluid-filled areas of the brain) and code events, among other adverse outcomes. What’s more, a patient with an unintended extubation can experience a nearly doubled hospital stay compared with the length of stay for newborns whose breathing tubes remain in their proper places. Each unplanned extubation can increase the cost of care by $36,000 per patient per admission.

To tackle this problem, Children’s National created the Stop Unintended Extubations “SUN” team. The team created a package of interventions for high-risk patients. Within one month, unintended extubations dropped from 1.18 events per 100 ventilator days to 0.59 events during the same time frame. And, within five months, that plummeted even further to 0.41 events per 100 ventilator days.

Their ultimate goal is to whittle that rate down even further to 0.3 events per 100 ventilator days, which has occurred sporadically. And the NICU notched up to 75 days between unintended extubations.

“Unintended extubation rates at Children’s National are lower than the median reported on various quality indices, but we know we can do more to enhance patient safety,” Ridoré says. ”Our SUN team will continue to address key drivers of this quality measure with the aim of consistently maintaining this rate at no more than 0.3 events per 100 ventilator days.”

Children’s National NICU reduces chest x-rays, unintended extubations

nicu-reduces-xrays

Children’s National is taking the lead in safety and quality improvement by initiating two protocols in its neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) aimed at reducing chest X-rays and unintended extubations (UE). Through these efforts, the Neonatology and Radiology divisions have decreased the X-ray radiation dose levels to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), reduced the number of unintended extubations, and found significant cost-savings. Notably, the Children’s National team was awarded an Honorable Mention for their abstract submission on UE efforts at the Children’s Hospitals Neonatal Consortium Quality Symposium in September.

Evaluating effectiveness of the chest x-ray

Chest X-rays in the NICU are one of the top five unnecessary tests, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. While they may be used to help with procedures, such as verifying placement of endotracheal tubes (ETT) and central venous catheters, they don’t increase efficacy or safety, and they have been found to increase the use of hospital resources.

There were concerns of an increased incidence of UEs and potential excess radiation exposure, and that’s when the NICU team at Children’s National developed a new protocol. It restricted the use of routine chest X-rays used to confirm ETT placement for all stable intubated patients.

Chest X-rays are now performed twice a week, instead of daily, or following a change in status, for stable ventilated patients. The team realized that daily chest X-rays might not be needed and that reducing their frequency would also decrease the likelihood of patients self-extubating during the procedure. Dropping the additional procedures was believed to be non-disruptive.

To measure the effectiveness of the new protocol, the team used Trendstar billing data to track the number of single chest X-rays for all NICU patients per patient day. It also used that data to show the total net charge for a single chest X-ray.

Taking measures to decrease unintended extubations

Unintended extubations are the fourth most common event in the NICU and are associated with hypoxia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, intraventricular hemorrhage, code events, and increased length of stay. In fact, UEs almost double the length of stay versus patients who do not experience UEs, and the cost of care increases by $34,000 per patient.

Realizing these detrimental effects, the Children’s NICU team launched a quality improvement project to reduce UE rates from a median of 0.6 events to less than 0.3 events per 100 vent days, and in turn its associated complications, by December 2016.

To accomplish this, the staff and stakeholders formed the Stop UNintended Extubations (SUN) Team to address key drivers such as consistent taping and re-taping practices, appropriate sedation of patients, standardizing practices around moving intubated patients, and more. The team designed and tested a UE Rick Scale to assess the likelihood of extubation, and each key driver was assigned several actionable interventions for high-risk patients to escalate and address cases prior to potential UE events. Interventions included team safety huddles and debriefs, risk reports, staff education, tube placement corrections, and taping standards among others.

The outcomes

The new X-ray protocol reduced the rate of chest X-rays and showed a 27 percent cost-savings for babies with longer NICU stays. The change also decreased the patient radiation doses to ALARA. The team will continue to track the data as it will review the rates again in December 2016.

The UE quality initiative calculated UE rates based on the number of total ventilator days less the number of tracheostomy days. Within a month of starting the project, the unintended extubation rate decreased from 1.18 to .59 events per 100 vent days. Within five months, the NICU reached its lowest rate below their benchmark median at 0.41 events per 100 vent days, and the number of days between events increased from a high of days prior to the project to a high of 33 days. The team continues to test the UE Risk Scale in order to validate it for external use.